Pdf ebook: Unequal Crime Decline

Pdf download ebook Unequal Crime Decline

Summary: 2009 Choice Outstanding Academic Title Crime in most urban areas has been falling since 1991. While the decline has been well-documented, few scholars have

  • Author : N.a
  • Publisher: NYU Press
  • ISBN: 9780814767726
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 180
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1672
  • Downloads: 1672
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Description: 2009 Choice Outstanding Academic Title Crime in most urban areas has been falling since 1991. While the decline has been well-documented, few scholars have analyzed which groups have most benefited from the crime decline and which are still on the frontlines of violence—and why that might be. In Unequal Crime Decline, Karen F. Parker presents a structural and theoretical analysis of the various factors that affect the crime decline, looking particularly at the past three decades and the shifts that have taken place, and offers original insight into which trends have declined and why. Taking into account such indicators as employment, labor market opportunities, skill levels, housing, changes in racial composition, family structure, and drug trafficking, Parker provides statistics that illustrate how these factors do or do not affect urban violence, and carefully considers these factors in relation to various crime trends, such as rates involving blacks, whites, but also trends among black males, white females, as well as others. Throughout the book she discusses popular structural theories of crime and their limitations, in the end concentrating on today’s issues and important contemporary policy to be considered. Unequal Crime Decline is a comprehensive and theoretically sophisticated look at the relationship among race, urban inequality, and violence in the years leading up to and following America’s landmark crime drop.


Pdf ebook: The Myth of the ‘Crime Decline’

Pdf download ebook The Myth of the ‘Crime Decline’

Summary: The Myth of the ‘Crime Decline’ seeks to critically interrogate the supposed statistical decline of crime rates, thought to have occurred in a number o

  • Author : Justin Kotzé
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351134574
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 188
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1631
  • Downloads: 1631
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Description: The Myth of the ‘Crime Decline’ seeks to critically interrogate the supposed statistical decline of crime rates, thought to have occurred in a number of predominantly Western countries over the past two decades. Whilst this trend of declining crime rates seems profound, serious questions need to be asked. Data sources need to be critically interrogated and context needs to be provided. This book seeks to do just that. This book examines the wider socio-economic and politico-cultural context within which this decline in crime is said to have occurred, highlighting the changing nature and landscape of crime and its ever deepening resistance to precise measurement. By drawing upon original qualitative research and cutting edge criminological theory, this book offers an alternative view of the reality of crime and harm. In doing so it seeks to reframe the ‘crime decline’ discourse and provide a more accurate account of this puzzling contemporary phenomenon. Additionally, utilising a new theoretical framework developed by the author, this book begins to explain why the ‘crime decline’ discourse has been so readily accepted. Written in an accessible yet theoretical and informed manner, this book is a must-read for academics and students in the fields of criminology, sociology, social policy, and the philosophy of social sciences.


Pdf ebook: Understanding New York’s Crime Drop

Pdf download ebook Understanding New York’s Crime Drop

Summary: This book explores New York City’s historic crime drop over the past quarter of a century. New York City’s dramatic crime decline is a real brainteaser

  • Author : Richard Rosenfeld,Karen Terry,Preeti Chauhan
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1000065146
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 200
  • Language: English
  • Views: 309
  • Downloads: 309
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Description: This book explores New York City’s historic crime drop over the past quarter of a century. New York City’s dramatic crime decline is a real brainteaser: no one predicted it and, as of yet, no one has explained it, at least to the satisfaction of most social scientists who study crime trends. Three strategic lessons emerge from the contributions to this volume on New York’s crime drop. It is suggested that future research should: • go wide by putting New York in comparative context, nationally and internationally; • go long by putting New York’s recent experience in historical context; • develop a strong ground game by investigating New York’s crime drop across multiple spatial units, down to the street segment. The contributors to Understanding New York’s Crime Drop aim to provoke expanded and sustained attention to crime trends in New York and elsewhere. This book was originally published as a special issue of the journal, Justice Quarterly.


Pdf ebook: Uneasy Peace: The Great Crime Decline, the Renewal of City Life, and the Next War on Violence

Pdf download ebook Uneasy Peace: The Great Crime Decline, the Renewal of City Life, and the Next War on Violence

Summary: “Remarkable.… The story of the crime decline is about the wisdom of single steps and small sanities.… It is possible to see this as a kind of humanis

  • Author : Patrick Sharkey
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
  • ISBN: 0393609618
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Views: 463
  • Downloads: 463
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Description: “Remarkable.… The story of the crime decline is about the wisdom of single steps and small sanities.… It is possible to see this as a kind of humanist miracle, a lesson about the self-organizing and, sometimes, self-healing capacities of human communities that’s as humbling, in its way, as any mystery that faith can offer.”—Adam Gopnik, The New Yorker Over the past two decades, American cities have experienced an astonishing drop in violent crime, dramatically changing urban life. Patrick Sharkey reveals the striking consequences: improved school test scores, since children are better able to learn when not traumatized by nearby violence; better chances that poor children will rise into the middle class; and a striking increase in the life expectancy of African American men. Many places once characterized by decay and abandonment are now thriving, yet pervasive inequality threatens these gains. At a time when crime is rising again and powerful political forces seek to disinvest in cities, the insights in this book are indispensable.


Pdf ebook: Get a Job

Pdf download ebook Get a Job

Summary: Are the unemployed more likely to commit crimes? Does having a job make one less likely to commit a crime? Criminologists have found that individuals who a

  • Author : Robert D. Crutchfield
  • Publisher: NYU Press
  • ISBN: 1479821152
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 303
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1855
  • Downloads: 1855
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Description: Are the unemployed more likely to commit crimes? Does having a job make one less likely to commit a crime? Criminologists have found that individuals who are marginalized from the labor market are more likely to commit crimes, and communities with more members who are marginal to the labor market have higher rates of crime. Yet, as Robert Crutchfield explains, contrary to popular expectations, unemployment has been found to be an inconsistent predictor of either individual criminality or collective crime rates. In Get a Job, Crutchfield offers a carefully nuanced understanding of the links among work, unemployment, and crime. Crutchfield explains how people’s positioning in the labor market affects their participation in all kinds of crimes, from violent acts to profit-motivated offenses such as theft and drug trafficking. Crutchfield also draws on his first-hand knowledge of growing up in a poor, black neighborhood in Pittsburgh and later working on the streets as a parole officer, enabling him to develop a more complete understanding of how work and crime are related and both contribute to, and are a result of, social inequalities and disadvantage. Well-researched and informative, Get a Job tells a powerful story of one of the most troubling side effects of economic disparities in America.


Pdf ebook: Theorizing Crime and Deviance

Pdf download ebook Theorizing Crime and Deviance

Summary: "Anything that takes away from the terminally off key karaoke of so much that passes for theory in criminology is to be welcomed, and this is a fine effort

  • Author : Steve Hall
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 144625867X
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 304
  • Language: English
  • Views: 680
  • Downloads: 680
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Description: "Anything that takes away from the terminally off key karaoke of so much that passes for theory in criminology is to be welcomed, and this is a fine effort to connect the study of crime and control to an innovative set of theoretical possibilities. A rip-roaring read that slaughters some sacred cows while throwing the odd baby out with the bath water." - Richard Hobbs, University of Essex "Boldly tackles big questions that the discipline has lately been unable or unwilling to confront. Steve Hall's compelling and original book should help to restart a crucial discussion about the connections between crime and an increasingly volatile and predatory global social order." - Elliott Currie, University of California, Irvine "This erudite and original book synthesizes a dazzling array of thought and evidence to interrogate criminological theory's dominant conservative and liberal perspectives... This reviewer is left with a sense of criminological theory's tiredness of intellectual ambition and scope, while Hall's book leaves a sense of rejuvenation and excitement." - Colin Webster, British Journal of Criminology "A beautifully written, accessible and yet theoretically rigorous piece of writing that should be read by everyone interested in crime, law and social order. The book should be read with an open mind and as a genuine response to the suffocating inability of criminology to free itself from the century old slanging-match between its liberal and conservative wings." - Simon Winlow, University of York Steve Hall uses cutting-edge philosophy and social theory to analyse patterns of crime and harm and illuminate contemporary criminological issues. He provides a fresh, relevant critique of the philosophical and political underpinnings of criminological theory and the theoretical canon's development during the twentieth century, and applies new Continental philosophy to the criminological problem. Unmatched in its sophistication yet written in a clear, accessible style, this dynamic and highly engaging book is essential reading for all students, researchers and academics working in criminology, sociology, social policy, politics and the social sciences in general.


Pdf ebook: The Great American Crime Decline

Pdf download ebook The Great American Crime Decline

Summary: Many theories--from the routine to the bizarre--have been offered up to explain the crime decline of the 1990s. Was it record levels of imprisonment? An ab

  • Author : Franklin E. Zimring
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199702535
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 272
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1588
  • Downloads: 1588
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Description: Many theories--from the routine to the bizarre--have been offered up to explain the crime decline of the 1990s. Was it record levels of imprisonment? An abatement of the crack cocaine epidemic? More police using better tactics? Or even the effects of legalized abortion? And what can we expect from crime rates in the future? Franklin E. Zimring here takes on the experts, and counters with the first in-depth portrait of the decline and its true significance. The major lesson from the 1990s is that relatively superficial changes in the character of urban life can be associated with up to 75% drops in the crime rate. Crime can drop even if there is no major change in the population, the economy or the schools. Offering the most reliable data available, Zimring documents the decline as the longest and largest since World War II. It ranges across both violent and non-violent offenses, all regions, and every demographic. All Americans, whether they live in cities or suburbs, whether rich or poor, are safer today. Casting a critical and unerring eye on current explanations, this book demonstrates that both long-standing theories of crime prevention and recently generated theories fall far short of explaining the 1990s drop. A careful study of Canadian crime trends reveals that imprisonment and economic factors may not have played the role in the U.S. crime drop that many have suggested. There was no magic bullet but instead a combination of factors working in concert rather than a single cause that produced the decline. Further--and happily for future progress, it is clear that declines in the crime rate do not require fundamental social or structural changes. Smaller shifts in policy can make large differences. The significant reductions in crime rates, especially in New York, where crime dropped twice the national average, suggests that there is room for other cities to repeat this astounding success. In this definitive look at the great American crime decline, Franklin E. Zimring finds no pat answers but evidence that even lower crime rates might be in store.


Pdf ebook: Rural Crime and Community Safety

Pdf download ebook Rural Crime and Community Safety

Summary: Crime is often perceived as an urban issue rather than a problem that occurs in rural areas, but how far is this view tenable? This book explores the relat

  • Author : Vania A Ceccato
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135005559
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 394
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1379
  • Downloads: 1379
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Description: Crime is often perceived as an urban issue rather than a problem that occurs in rural areas, but how far is this view tenable? This book explores the relationship between crime and community in rural areas and addresses the notion of safety as part of the community dynamics in such areas. Rural Crime and Community Safety makes a significant contribution to crime science and integrates a range of theories to understand patterns of crime and perceived safety in rural contexts. Based on a wealth of original research, Ceccato combines spatial methods with qualitative analysis to examine, in detail, farm and wildlife crime, youth related crimes and gendered violence in rural settings. Making the most of the expanding field of Criminology and of the growing professional inquiry into crime and crime prevention in rural areas; rural development; and the social sustainability of rural areas, this book builds a bridge by connecting Criminology and Human Geography. This book will be suitable for academics, students and practitioners in the fields of criminology, community safety, rural studies, rural development and gender studies.


Pdf ebook: Prisoners on Criminology

Pdf download ebook Prisoners on Criminology

Summary: William S. Tregea makes prisoners’ stories come alive with eighty prisoner essays integrated in informational chapters tracing shifts in criminality, the

  • Author : William S. Tregea
  • Publisher: Lexington Books
  • ISBN: 0739145894
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 396
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1948
  • Downloads: 1948
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Description: William S. Tregea makes prisoners’ stories come alive with eighty prisoner essays integrated in informational chapters tracing shifts in criminality, the U.S. prison build up, and inner cities. The chapters review criminological theories through case studies of prisoners’ own insights on their lives at the individual, family, and community levels.


Pdf ebook: The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime

Pdf download ebook The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime

Summary: Research on gender, sex, and crime today remains focused on topics that have been a mainstay of the field for several decades, but it has also recently exp

  • Author : Rosemary Gartner,Bill McCarthy
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199838712
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 736
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1269
  • Downloads: 1269
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Description: Research on gender, sex, and crime today remains focused on topics that have been a mainstay of the field for several decades, but it has also recently expanded to include studies from a variety of disciplines, a growing number of countries, and on a wider range of crimes. The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime reflects this growing diversity and provides authoritative overviews of current research and theory on how gender and sex shape crime and criminal justice responses to it. The editors, Rosemary Gartner and Bill McCarthy, have assembled a diverse cast of criminologists, historians, legal scholars, psychologists, and sociologists from a number of countries to discuss key concepts and debates central to the field. The Handbook includes examinations of the historical and contemporary patterns of women's and men's involvement in crime; as well as biological, psychological, and social science perspectives on gender, sex, and criminal activity. Several essays discuss the ways in which sex and gender influence legal and popular reactions to crime. An important theme throughout The Handbook is the intersection of sex and gender with ethnicity, class, age, peer groups, and community as influences on crime and justice. Individual chapters investigate both conventional topics - such as domestic abuse and sexual violence - and topics that have only recently drawn the attention of scholars - such as human trafficking, honor killing, gender violence during war, state rape, and genocide. The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime offers an unparalleled and comprehensive view of the connections among gender, sex, and crime in the United States and in many other countries. Its insights illuminate both traditional areas of study in the field and pathways for developing cutting-edge research questions.


Pdf ebook: Crime and Justice, Volume 44

Pdf download ebook Crime and Justice, Volume 44

Summary: Volume 44 of Crime and Justice is essential reading for scholars, policy makers, and practitioners who need to know about the latest advances in knowledge

  • Author : Michael Tonry
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 022634102X
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1181
  • Downloads: 1181
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Description: Volume 44 of Crime and Justice is essential reading for scholars, policy makers, and practitioners who need to know about the latest advances in knowledge concerning crime, its causes, and its control. Contents include Robert D. Crutchfield on the complex interactions among race, social class, and crime; Cassia Spohn on race, crime, and punishment in America; Marianne van Ooijen and Edward Kleemans on the “Dutch model” of drug policy; Beau Kilmer, Peter Reuter, and Luca Giommoni on cross-national and comparative knowledge about drug use and control drugs; Michael Tonry on federal sentencing policy since 1984; Kathryn Monahan, Laurence Steinberg, and Alex R. Piquero on the growing influence of bioscience and developmental psychology on juvenile justice policy and practice; Cheryl Lero Jonson and Francis T. Cullen on prisoner reentry programs; James P. Lynch and Lynn A. Addington on cultural changes in tolerance of violence amd their effects on crime statistics; Brandon C. Welsh, David P. Farrington, and B. Raffan Gowar on benefit-cost analysis of crime prevention; Torbjorn Skardhamar, Jukka Savolainen, Kjersti N. Aase, and Torkild H. Lyngstad on the effects of marriage on criminality; and John MacDonald on the effects on crime rates and patterns of urban design and development.


Pdf ebook: Victims, Crime and Society

Pdf download ebook Victims, Crime and Society

Summary: This book provides a thorough account of victimisation across the social spectrum of class, race, age and gender. The second edition has been fully revised

  • Author : Pamela Davies,Peter Francis,Chris Greer
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1473910919
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 304
  • Language: English
  • Views: 716
  • Downloads: 716
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Description: This book provides a thorough account of victimisation across the social spectrum of class, race, age and gender. The second edition has been fully revised and expanded, with two parts now spanning the key perspectives and issues in victimology. Covering theoretical, social and political contexts, the book: Includes new chapters on defining and constructing victims, fear and vulnerability, sexuality, white collar crime and the implications of crime policy on victims Examines a global range of historical and theoretical perspectives in victimology and features a new chapter on researching victims of crime Reinforces your learning through critical thinking sections, future research suggestions, chapter summaries and a glossary of key terms Victims, Crime and Society is the essential text for your studies in victimology across criminology, criminal justice, community safety, youth justice and related areas.


Pdf ebook: Crime, The Mystery of the Common-Sense Concept

Pdf download ebook Crime, The Mystery of the Common-Sense Concept

Summary: Crime is a source of endless fascination and fear. Yet behind the apparent consensus that crime must be fought, there is considerable conflict about what s

  • Author : Robert Reiner
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1509510761
  • Genre: Law
  • Number of Pages: 272
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1521
  • Downloads: 1521
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Description: Crime is a source of endless fascination and fear. Yet behind the apparent consensus that crime must be fought, there is considerable conflict about what should or should not be treated as criminal, and even the most shocking crimes can inspire divisive debate. This concise book explores the seemingly simple, common-sense concept of crime revealing the huge complexities, ambiguities and tensions that lie beneath it. Criminal law is often at odds with different moral perspectives and the practices of different cultures. The mass media distort the picture profoundly, as do politicians in pursuit of law and order votes. The criminal justice system tackles only a limited range of crimes – almost entirely ones committed by the poor and relatively powerless – while often neglecting the most dangerous and harmful activities of corporations and states, from the carnage of unjust wars to the tragedies engendered by austerity. It is only by examining the multiple and varied perspectives on crime that we can begin to understand and respond appropriately to this social phenomenon. Written by a world-leading criminologist, this insightful book will be an invaluable and captivating introduction for students and interested readers of criminology, law, sociology and politics.


Pdf ebook: Homicide and Organised Crime

Pdf download ebook Homicide and Organised Crime

Summary: This book offers rich ethnographic and narrative accounts of men who have been engaged in serious violence and organised crime in the West Midlands of Engl

  • Author : Mohammed Rahman
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3030162532
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 151
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1021
  • Downloads: 1021
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Description: This book offers rich ethnographic and narrative accounts of men who have been engaged in serious violence and organised crime in the West Midlands of England, using several theoretical paradigms. Through case study examples, it also considers contract killers and the nefarious position that ‘hitmen’ occupy in the criminal underworld. By charting insider perspectives from retired law enforcement agents, informants, ex-military personnel and ex-offenders, this book speaks to those who have a vested interest in violence, organised crime and ethnography.


Pdf ebook: Inequality, Crime, and Health among African American Males

Pdf download ebook Inequality, Crime, and Health among African American Males

Summary: In this volume, authors draw from theoretical and methodological frameworks in the health, social and behavioral sciences to illustrate how poor outcomes a

  • Author : Marino A. Bruce,Darnell F. Hawkins
  • Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
  • ISBN: 1786350513
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 248
  • Language: English
  • Views: 693
  • Downloads: 693
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Description: In this volume, authors draw from theoretical and methodological frameworks in the health, social and behavioral sciences to illustrate how poor outcomes among individuals and communities can be linked to the interplay of multiple factors operating at various levels.


Pdf ebook: The Handbook of Criminological Theory

Pdf download ebook The Handbook of Criminological Theory

Summary: An indispensable resource for all levels, this handbook provides up-to-date, in-depth summaries of the most important theories in criminology. Provides ori

  • Author : Alex R. Piquero
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118512324
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1108
  • Downloads: 1108
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Description: An indispensable resource for all levels, this handbook provides up-to-date, in-depth summaries of the most important theories in criminology. Provides original, cutting-edge, and in-depth summaries of the most important theories in criminology Covers the origins and assumptions behind each theory, explores current debates and research, points out knowledge gaps, and offers directions for future research Encompasses theory, research, policy, and practice, with recommendations for further reading at the end of each essay Features discussions of broad issues and topics related to the field, such as the correlates of crime, testing theory, policy, and prediction Clearly and accessibly written by leading scholars in the field as well as up-and-coming scholars


Pdf ebook: Addicted to Incarceration

Pdf download ebook Addicted to Incarceration

Summary: In Addicted to Incarceration, author Travis C. Pratt uses an evidence-based approach to explore the consequences of what he terms America′s "addiction to

  • Author : Travis C. Pratt
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • ISBN: 1544345062
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 160
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1193
  • Downloads: 1193
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Description: In Addicted to Incarceration, author Travis C. Pratt uses an evidence-based approach to explore the consequences of what he terms America′s "addiction to incarceration." Highlighting the scope of the issue, the nature of the political discussions surrounding criminal justice policy in general and corrections policy in particular, and the complex social cost of incarceration, this book takes an incisive look at the approach to corrections in the United States. The Second Edition demonstrates that the United States′ addiction to incarceration has been fueled by American citizens′ opinions about crime and punishment, the use of incarceration as a means of social control, and perhaps most important, by policies legitimized by faulty information. Analyzing crime policies as they relate to crime rates and society′s ability to both lower the crime rate and address the role of incarceration in preventing future crime, this book shows students how ineffective the rush to incarcerate has been in the past and offers recommendations and insights to navigate this significant problem going forward.


Pdf ebook: Violence in the Barrios of Caracas

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Summary: This book presents an overview of the problem of urban violence in Caracas, and specifically in its barrios. It helps situate readers familiar or not with

  • Author : Daniel S. Leon
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3030229408
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 181
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1621
  • Downloads: 1621
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Description: This book presents an overview of the problem of urban violence in Caracas, and specifically in its barrios. It helps situate readers familiar or not with Latin American in the context that is Caracas, Venezuela, a city displaying one of the world’s highest homicide rates. The book offers a qualitative comparison of the informal mechanisms of social control in three barrios of Caracas. This comprehensive analysis can help explain high homicide rates, while socio-economic conditions improved due to substantial oil windfalls in the twenty-first century. The author describes why informal social control was not effective in some barrios, and points to the role of some organizational arrangements in increasing the incentives to use violence, even under improving socio-economic conditions. The analysis addresses a gap in the literature on violence, which mainly posits high violence rates after economic downturns. Specifically, it investigates social capital's moderating effect between Caracas' political and economic structures and high violence rates. This book concludes that perverse social capital found in the barrios of Caracas helps explain high violence rates while socio-economic indicators improved until the early 2010s. Students and researchers interested in security studies or Latin America will benefit from this book because of its extensive theoretical discussions, use of primary sources, and unique multidisciplinary analysis of urban violence.


Pdf ebook: Until We Reckon

Pdf download ebook Until We Reckon

Summary: "Profoundly necessary." —Michelle Alexander, New York Times columnist and author of The New Jim Crow In the eloquent tradition of Bryan Stevenson's Just

  • Author : Danielle Sered
  • Publisher: The New Press
  • ISBN: 1620974800
  • Genre: Law
  • Number of Pages: 305
  • Language: English
  • Views: 459
  • Downloads: 459
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Description: "Profoundly necessary." —Michelle Alexander, New York Times columnist and author of The New Jim Crow In the eloquent tradition of Bryan Stevenson's Just Mercy, an award-winning leader in the movement to end mass incarceration takes on the vexing problem of violent crime Although over half the people incarcerated in America today have committed violent offenses, the focus of reformers has been almost entirely on nonviolent and drug offenses. Danielle Sered's brilliant and groundbreaking Until We Reckon steers directly and unapologetically into the question of violence, offering approaches that will help end mass incarceration and increase safety. Widely recognized as one of the leading proponents of a restorative approach to violent crime, Sered asks us to reconsider the purposes of incarceration and argues persuasively that the needs of survivors of violent crime are better met by asking people who commit violence to accept responsibility for their actions and make amends in ways that are meaningful to those they have hurt—none of which happens in the context of a criminal trial or a prison sentence. Sered launched and directs Common Justice, one of the few organizations offering alternatives to incarceration for people who commit serious violent crime and which has produced immensely promising results. Critically, Sered argues that the reckoning owed is not only on the part of those who have committed violence, but also by our nation's overreliance on incarceration to produce safety—at great cost to communities, survivors, racial equity, and the very fabric of our democracy.


Pdf ebook: Divergent Social Worlds

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Summary: More than half a century after the first Jim Crow laws were dismantled, the majority of urban neighborhoods in the United States remain segregated by race.

  • Author : Ruth D. Peterson,Lauren J. Krivo
  • Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
  • ISBN: 1610446771
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 184
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1140
  • Downloads: 1140
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Description: More than half a century after the first Jim Crow laws were dismantled, the majority of urban neighborhoods in the United States remain segregated by race. The degree of social and economic advantage or disadvantage that each community experiences—particularly its crime rate—is most often a reflection of which group is in the majority. As Ruth Peterson and Lauren Krivo note in Divergent Social Worlds, “Race, place, and crime are still inextricably linked in the minds of the public.” This book broadens the scope of single-city, black/white studies by using national data to compare local crime patterns in five racially distinct types of neighborhoods. Peterson and Krivo meticulously demonstrate how residential segregation creates and maintains inequality in neighborhood crime rates. Based on the authors’ groundbreaking National Neighborhood Crime Study (NNCS), Divergent Social Worlds provides a more complete picture of the social conditions underlying neighborhood crime patterns than has ever before been drawn. The study includes economic, social, and local investment data for nearly nine thousand neighborhoods in eighty-seven cities, and the findings reveal a pattern across neighborhoods of racialized separation among unequal groups. Residential segregation reproduces existing privilege or disadvantage in neighborhoods—such as adequate or inadequate schools, political representation, and local business—increasing the potential for crime and instability in impoverished non-white areas yet providing few opportunities for residents to improve conditions or leave. And the numbers bear this out. Among urban residents, more than two-thirds of all whites, half of all African Americans, and one-third of Latinos live in segregated local neighborhoods. More than 90 percent of white neighborhoods have low poverty, but this is only true for one quarter of black, Latino, and minority areas. Of the five types of neighborhoods studied, African American communities experience violent crime on average at a rate five times that of their white counterparts, with violence rates for Latino, minority, and integrated neighborhoods falling between the two extremes. Divergent Social Worlds lays to rest the popular misconception that persistently high crime rates in impoverished, non-white neighborhoods are merely the result of individual pathologies or, worse, inherent group criminality. Yet Peterson and Krivo also show that the reality of crime inequality in urban neighborhoods is no less alarming. Separate, the book emphasizes, is inherently unequal. Divergent Social Worlds lays the groundwork for closing the gap—and for next steps among organizers, policymakers, and future researchers. A Volume in the American Sociological Association’s Rose Series in Sociology