Pdf ebook: The World as Will and Representation

Pdf download ebook The World as Will and Representation

Summary: The World as Will and Representation is the central work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. One of the most important philosophical works of th

  • Author : N.a
  • Publisher: Aegitas
  • ISBN: 1773130404
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 685
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1326
  • Downloads: 1326
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Description: The World as Will and Representation is the central work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. One of the most important philosophical works of the nineteenth century, the basic statement of one important stream of post-Kantian thought. It is without question Schopenhauer's greatest work. Conceived and published before the philosopher was 30 and expanded 25 years later, it is the summation of a lifetime of thought. "...This book will be of interest to general readers, undergraduates, graduates, and scholars in the field." --George Lăzăroiu, PhD, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, New York, Analysis and Metaphysics


Pdf ebook: The World as Will and Idea -

Pdf download ebook The World as Will and Idea -

Summary: This vintage book contains the first volume of Arthur Schopenhauer’s 1818 treatise, "The World As Will And Idea". One of the most influential philosophic

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: Read Books Ltd
  • ISBN: 1473374901
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 568
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1742
  • Downloads: 1742
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Description: This vintage book contains the first volume of Arthur Schopenhauer’s 1818 treatise, "The World As Will And Idea". One of the most influential philosophical works of the nineteenth century, it is Schopenhauer’s greatest endeavour, and constitutes the summation of a lifetime of contemplation. In it, he postulates that our existence is fuelled by an unsatisfied will, perpetually searching for satisfaction. This fascinating book is highly recommended for students of psychology, and would make for a worthy addition to collections of related literature. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 - 1860) was a seminal German philosopher. Many antiquarian texts such as this are increasingly scarce and expensive, and it is with this in mind that we are republishing this volume now in an affordable, modern, high-quality edition. It comes complete with a specially commissioned new biography of the author.


Pdf ebook: The World as Will and Idea

Pdf download ebook The World as Will and Idea

Summary:

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: Library of Alexandria
  • ISBN: 1465553517
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: N.A
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1662
  • Downloads: 1662
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Description:


Pdf ebook: The World as Will and Idea 1

Pdf download ebook The World as Will and Idea 1

Summary: The style of “Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung” is sometimes loose and involved, as is so often the case in German philosophical treatises. The trans

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: 谷月社
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: N.A
  • Language: English
  • Views: 557
  • Downloads: 557
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Description: The style of “Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung” is sometimes loose and involved, as is so often the case in German philosophical treatises. The translation of the book has consequently been a matter of no little difficulty. It was found that extensive alteration of the long and occasionally involved sentences, however likely to prove conducive to a satisfactory English style, tended not only to obliterate the form of the original but even to imperil the meaning. Where a choice has had to be made, the alternative of a somewhat slavish adherence to Schopenhauer's ipsissima verba has accordingly been preferred to that of inaccuracy. The result is a piece of work which leaves much to be desired, but which has yet consistently sought to reproduce faithfully the spirit as well as the letter of the original. As regards the rendering of the technical terms about which there has been so much controversy, the equivalents used have only been adopted after careful consideration of their meaning in the theory of knowledge. For example, “Vorstellung” has been rendered by “idea,” in preference to “representation,” which is neither accurate, intelligible, nor elegant. “Idee,” is translated by the same word, but spelled with a capital,—“Idea.” Again, “Anschauung” has been rendered according to the context, either by “perception” simply, or by “intuition or perception.” Notwithstanding statements to the contrary in the text, the book is probably quite intelligible in itself, apart from the treatise “On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.” It has, however, been considered desirable to add an abstract of the latter work in an appendix to the third volume of this translation.


Pdf ebook: The World as Will and Idea (Vol. 3 of 3)

Pdf download ebook The World as Will and Idea (Vol. 3 of 3)

Summary: First published in the year 1818, the present book 'The World as Will and Idea (Vol. 3 of 3)' is the third volume of Arthur Schopenhauer's famous treatise

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: Prabhat Prakashan
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: N.A
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1191
  • Downloads: 1191
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Description: First published in the year 1818, the present book 'The World as Will and Idea (Vol. 3 of 3)' is the third volume of Arthur Schopenhauer's famous treatise with same title. This work was well received by the critics and marked to be one of the most influential philosophical works of the nineteenth century.


Pdf ebook: The World as Will and Idea -

Pdf download ebook The World as Will and Idea -

Summary: This vintage book contains the third volume of Arthur Schopenhauer's 1818 treatise, "The World As Will And Idea". One of the most influential philosophical

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: Read Books Ltd
  • ISBN: 1473388953
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 718
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1447
  • Downloads: 1447
  • GET BOOK

Description: This vintage book contains the third volume of Arthur Schopenhauer's 1818 treatise, "The World As Will And Idea". One of the most influential philosophical works of the nineteenth century, it is Schopenhauer's greatest endeavour, and constitutes the summation of a lifetime of contemplation. In it, he postulates that our existence is fuelled by an unsatisfied will, perpetually searching for satisfaction. This fascinating book is highly recommended for students of psychology, and would make for a worthy addition to collections of related literature. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 - 1860) was a seminal German philosopher. Many antiquarian texts such as this are increasingly scarce and expensive, and it is with this in mind that we are republishing this volume now in an affordable, modern, high-quality edition. It comes complete with a specially commissioned new biography of the author.


Pdf ebook: The World as Will and Idea 3

Pdf download ebook The World as Will and Idea 3

Summary: If the intellect were not of a subordinate nature, as the two preceding chapters show, then everything which takes place without it, i.e., without interven

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: 谷月社
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: N.A
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1305
  • Downloads: 1305
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Description: If the intellect were not of a subordinate nature, as the two preceding chapters show, then everything which takes place without it, i.e., without intervention of the idea, such as reproduction, the development and maintenance of the organism, the healing of wounds, the restoration or vicarious supplementing of mutilated parts, the salutary crisis in diseases, the works of the mechanical skill of animals, and the performances of instinct would not be done so infinitely better and more perfectly than what takes place with the assistance of intellect, all conscious and intentional achievements of men, which compared with the former are mere bungling. In general nature signifies that which operates, acts, performs without the assistance of the intellect. Now, that this is really identical with what we find in ourselves as will is the general theme of this second book, and also of the essay, “Ueber den Willen in der Natur.” The possibility of this fundamental knowledge depends upon the fact that in us the will is directly lighted by the intellect, which here appears as self-consciousness; otherwise we could just as little arrive at a fuller knowledge of it within us as without us, and must for ever stop at inscrutable forces of nature. We have to ] abstract from the assistance of the intellect if we wish to comprehend the nature of the will in itself, and thereby, as far as is possible, penetrate to the inner being of nature. On this account, it may be remarked in passing, my direct antipode among philosophers is Anaxagoras; for he assumed arbitrarily as that which is first and original, from which everything proceeds, a νους, an intelligence, a subject of ideas, and he is regarded as the first who promulgated such a view. According to him the world existed earlier in the mere idea than in itself; while according to me it is the unconscious will which constitutes the reality of things, and its development must have advanced very far before it finally attains, in the animal consciousness, to the idea and intelligence; so that, according to me, thought appears as the very last. However, according to the testimony of Aristotle (Metaph., i. 4), Anaxagoras himself did not know how to begin much with his νους, but merely set it up, and then left it standing like a painted saint at the entrance, without making use of it in his development of nature, except in cases of need, when he did not know how else to help himself. All physico-theology is a carrying out of the error opposed to the truth expressed at the beginning of this chapter—the error that the most perfect form of the origin of things is that which is brought about by means of an intellect. Therefore it draws a bolt against all deep exploration of nature.


Pdf ebook: The Essential Schopenhauer

Pdf download ebook The Essential Schopenhauer

Summary: “We should be grateful to Schopenhauer for managing to express the truth about life so beautifully.” —Alain De Botton, author of The Consolations of

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: Harper Collins
  • ISBN: 0062036246
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 368
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1247
  • Downloads: 1247
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Description: “We should be grateful to Schopenhauer for managing to express the truth about life so beautifully.” —Alain De Botton, author of The Consolations of Philosophy “Schopenhauer’s philosophy has had a special attraction for those who wonder about life’s meaning, along with those engaged in music, literature, and the visual arts.” —Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy The Essential Schopenhauer delivers the first comprehensive English anthology of the seminal philosopher’s writings. Edited by Wolfgang Schirmacher, president of the International Schopenhauer Association, this indispensible collection affords readers a uniquely accessible gateway into the monolithic thinker’s prodigious body of work. Just as the Harper Perennial Basic Writings series renders the work of Heidegger and Nietzsche accessible for English readers, The Essential Schopenhauer gives us unprecedented access to the complex ideas of this profound and influential thinker.


Pdf ebook: Schopenhauer's 'The World as Will and Representation'

Pdf download ebook Schopenhauer's 'The World as Will and Representation'

Summary: Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation is widely considered to be one of the most important and influential texts in nineteenth-century German

  • Author : Robert L. Wicks
  • Publisher: A&C Black
  • ISBN: 1441160337
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 192
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1248
  • Downloads: 1248
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Description: Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation is widely considered to be one of the most important and influential texts in nineteenth-century German philosophy. The text provides an avenue through which to introduce and explore a rich assortment of philosophical themes and questions, and represents Schopenhauer's widely discussed attempt to find personal meaning amidst a violent, frustrating and seemingly godless world. Since it was published in 1818, the text has influenced generations of musicians, artists, writers and historians, as well as philosophers. This� Reader's Guide presents a concise and accessible introduction to the text, offering invaluable guidance on: - Philosophical context - Key themes - Reading the text - Reception and influence - Further reading


Pdf ebook: Thus Spoke Zarathustra

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Summary: 'Enigmatic, vatic, emphatic, passionate . . . Nietzsche's works together make a unique statement in the literature of European ideas' A. C. Grayling Nietzs

  • Author : Friedrich Nietzsche
  • Publisher: Penguin UK
  • ISBN: 0141904321
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 352
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1694
  • Downloads: 1694
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Description: 'Enigmatic, vatic, emphatic, passionate . . . Nietzsche's works together make a unique statement in the literature of European ideas' A. C. Grayling Nietzsche was one of the most revolutionary thinkers in Western philosophy, and Thus Spoke Zarathustra remains his most influential work. It describes how the ancient Persian prophet Zarathustra descends from his solitude in the mountains to tell the world that God is dead and that the Superman, the human embodiment of divinity, is his successor. With blazing intensity, Nietzsche argues that the meaning of existence is not to be found in religious pieties or meek submission, but in an all-powerful life force: passionate, chaotic and free. Translated with an introduction by R. J. HOLLINGDALE


Pdf ebook: Essays and Aphorisms

Pdf download ebook Essays and Aphorisms

Summary: One of the greatest philosophers of the nineteenth century, Schopenhauer (1788-1860) believed that human action is determined not by reason but by 'will' -

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: Penguin UK
  • ISBN: 0141921757
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Views: 953
  • Downloads: 953
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Description: One of the greatest philosophers of the nineteenth century, Schopenhauer (1788-1860) believed that human action is determined not by reason but by 'will' - the blind and irrational desire for physical existence. This selection of his writings on religion, ethics, politics, women, suicide, books and many other themes is taken from Schopenhauer's last work, Parerga and Paralipomena, which he published in 1851. These pieces depict humanity as locked in a struggle beyond good and evil, and each individual absolutely free within a Godless world, in which art, morality and self-awareness are our only salvation. This innovative - and pessimistic - view has proved powerfully influential upon philosophy and art, directly affecting the work of Nietzsche, Wittgenstein and Wagner among others.


Pdf ebook: The Idea of the World

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Summary: A rigorous case for the primacy of mind in nature, from philosophy to neuroscience, psychology and physics. The Idea of the World offers a grounded alterna

  • Author : Bernardo Kastrup
  • Publisher: John Hunt Publishing
  • ISBN: 1785357409
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 312
  • Language: English
  • Views: 461
  • Downloads: 461
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Description: A rigorous case for the primacy of mind in nature, from philosophy to neuroscience, psychology and physics. The Idea of the World offers a grounded alternative to the frenzy of unrestrained abstractions and unexamined assumptions in philosophy and science today. This book examines what can be learned about the nature of reality based on conceptual parsimony, straightforward logic and empirical evidence from fields as diverse as physics and neuroscience. It compiles an overarching case for idealism - the notion that reality is essentially mental - from ten original articles the author has previously published in leading academic journals. The case begins with an exposition of the logical fallacies and internal contradictions of the reigning physicalist ontology and its popular alternatives, such as bottom-up panpsychism. It then advances a compelling formulation of idealism that elegantly makes sense of - and reconciles - classical and quantum worlds. The main objections to idealism are systematically refuted and empirical evidence is reviewed that corroborates the formulation presented here. The book closes with an analysis of the hidden psychological motivations behind mainstream physicalism and the implications of idealism for the way we relate to the world.


Pdf ebook: Essays of Schopenhauer

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Summary: When Schopenhauer was asked where he wished to be buried, he answered, "Anywhere; they will find me;" and the stone that marks his grave at Frankfort bears

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: 谷月社
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Literary Collections
  • Number of Pages: N.A
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1035
  • Downloads: 1035
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Description: When Schopenhauer was asked where he wished to be buried, he answered, "Anywhere; they will find me;" and the stone that marks his grave at Frankfort bears merely the inscription "Arthur Schopenhauer," without even the date of his birth or death. Schopenhauer, the pessimist, had a sufficiently optimistic conviction that his message to the world would ultimately be listened to—a conviction that never failed him during a lifetime of disappointments, of neglect in quarters where perhaps he would have most cherished appreciation; a conviction that only showed some signs of being justified a few years before his death. Schopenhauer was no opportunist; he was not even conciliatory; he never hesitated to declare his own faith in himself, in his principles, in his philosophy; he did not ask to be listened to as a matter of courtesy but as a right—a right for which he would struggle, for which he fought, and which has in the course of time, it may be admitted, been conceded to him. Although everything that Schopenhauer wrote was written more or less as evidence to support his main philosophical thesis, his unifying philosophical principle, the essays in this volume have an interest, if not altogether apart, at least of a sufficiently independent interest to enable them to be considered on their own merits, without relation to his main idea. And in dissociating them, if one may do so for a moment (their author would have scarcely permitted it!), one feels that one enters a field of criticism in which opinions can scarcely vary. So far as his philosophy is concerned, this unanimity does not exist; he is one of the best abused amongst philosophers; he has many times been explained and condemned exhaustively, and no doubt this will be as many times repeated. What the trend of his underlying philosophical principal was, his metaphysical explanation of the world, is indicated in almost all the following essays, but chiefly in the "Metaphysics of Love," to which the reader may be referred. These essays are a valuable criticism of life by a man who had a wide experience of life, a man of the world, who possessed an almost inspired faculty of observation. Schopenhauer, of all men, unmistakably observed life at first hand. There is no academic echo in his utterances; he is not one of a school; his voice has no formal intonation; it is deep, full-chested, and rings out its words with all the poignancy of individual emphasis, without bluster, but with unfailing conviction. He was for his time, and for his country, an adept at literary form; but he used it only as a means. Complicated as his sentences ...


Pdf ebook: The Metaphysics Of The Love Of The Sexes

Pdf download ebook The Metaphysics Of The Love Of The Sexes

Summary: Is Love an Illusion ? What is the relationship between Love and Sexual Impulse ? Schopenhauer gives us a new way of thinking about relationships between me

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: FV Éditions
  • ISBN: 236668665X
  • Genre: Body, Mind & Spirit
  • Number of Pages: 0
  • Language: English
  • Views: 949
  • Downloads: 949
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Description: Is Love an Illusion ? What is the relationship between Love and Sexual Impulse ? Schopenhauer gives us a new way of thinking about relationships between men and women.


Pdf ebook: Delphi Collected Works of Arthur Schopenhauer (Illustrated)

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Summary: The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer is best known for his 1818 work ‘The World as Will and Idea’, which characterises the phenomenal world as th

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: Delphi Classics
  • ISBN: 1786560887
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 2822
  • Language: English
  • Views: 744
  • Downloads: 744
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Description: The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer is best known for his 1818 work ‘The World as Will and Idea’, which characterises the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and insatiable metaphysical will. Proceeding from the transcendental idealism of Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that is viewed by many as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism. His works on aesthetics, morality and psychology would exert a major influence on existential philosophy and Freudian thinking. This comprehensive eBook presents Schopenhauer’s collected works, with numerous illustrations, rare texts, informative introductions and the usual Delphi bonus material. (Version 1) * Beautifully illustrated with images relating to Schopenhauer’s life and works * Concise introductions to the major treatises * The complete essays, translated by T. Bailey Saunders in seven volumes, with individual contents tables * Major works include their original hyperlinked footnotes – ideal for students * Excellent formatting of the texts * ‘The World as Will and Idea’ translated by R. B. Haldane and J. Kemp, in the much expanded sixth edition of 1909 * Special Essays alphabetical contents list – find the essay you want to read easily * Features three biographies - explore Schopenhauer’s intriguing life * Scholarly ordering of texts into chronological order Please visit www.delphiclassics.com to browse through our range of exciting titles CONTENTS: The Books ON THE FOURFOLD ROOT OF THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON THE WORLD AS WILL AND IDEA THE ART OF BEING RIGHT ON THE WILL IN NATURE ON THE BASIS OF MORALITY WISDOM OF LIFE COUNSELS AND MAXIMS RELIGION: A DIALOGUE THE ART OF LITERATURE STUDIES IN PESSIMISM ON HUMAN NATURE THE ART OF CONTROVERSY The Essays LIST OF ESSAYS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER The Biographies SCHOPENHAUER by Thomas Whittaker SCHOPENHAUER by Elbert Hubbard ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER by William Wallace Please visit www.delphiclassics.com to browse through our range of exciting titles or to purchase this eBook as a Parts Edition of individual eBooks


Pdf ebook: Philosophy: The Classics

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Summary: Now in its fourth edition, Philosophy: The Classics is a brisk and invigorating tour through the great books of western philosophy. In his exemplary clear

  • Author : Nigel Warburton
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 131790916X
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 302
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1002
  • Downloads: 1002
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Description: Now in its fourth edition, Philosophy: The Classics is a brisk and invigorating tour through the great books of western philosophy. In his exemplary clear style, Nigel Warburton introduces and assesses thirty-two philosophical classics from Plato’s Republic to Rawls’ A Theory of Justice. The fourth edition includes new material on: Montaigne Essays Thomas Paine Rights of Man R.G. Collingwood The Principles of Art Karl Popper The Open Society and Its Enemies Thomas Kuhn The Structure of Scientific Revolutions With a glossary and suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter, this is an ideal starting point for anyone interested in philosophy.


Pdf ebook: Suffering, Suicide and Immortality

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Summary: One of the greatest philosophers of the nineteenth century, Arthur Schopenhauer is best known for his writings on pessimism. In this 1851 essay collection,

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: Courier Corporation
  • ISBN: 0486113086
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 112
  • Language: English
  • Views: 389
  • Downloads: 389
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Description: One of the greatest philosophers of the nineteenth century, Arthur Schopenhauer is best known for his writings on pessimism. In this 1851 essay collection, he offers concise statements of the unifying principles of his thinking. Schopenhauer, unlike most philosophers, expressed himself in simple, direct terms. These essays offer an accessible approach to his main thesis, as stated in The World as Will and Representation. Schopenhauer's reasoning encompasses the influence of the Upanishads and Buddhist teachings, as well as the works of Plato and Kant. His philosophy had an enormous impact on contemporary philosophy and literature, and on subsequent thinkers such as Nietzsche, Freud, and Wittgenstein. Published toward the end of his life in a collection called Parerga und Paralipomena, these essays include "On the Sufferings of the World," "On the Vanity of Existence," "On Suicide," "Immortality: A Dialogue," "Further Psychological Observations," "On Education," "On Women," and "On Noise," plus "A Few Parables." They remain among Schopenhauer's most popular works, offering insights into his philosophy as a whole as well as the human condition.


Pdf ebook: On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason

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Summary: A disciple of Immanuel Kant, Arthur Schopenhauer took the Kantian concept that all knowledge derives from experience and broadened it to conclude that our

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.
  • ISBN: 1602063583
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 412
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1255
  • Downloads: 1255
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Description: A disciple of Immanuel Kant, Arthur Schopenhauer took the Kantian concept that all knowledge derives from experience and broadened it to conclude that our experience of the world is necessarily subjective and influenced by our own intellect and biases, and that reality is but an extension of our own will. This is the basis of all of Schopenhauer's thinking, and here, he offers an essential foundation for understanding and appreciating all of his work. First produced as his doctoral dissertation in 1813, these two essays-"On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason" and "On the Will in Nature"-were revised and published by the author in 1847; this 1889 edition represents its first translation into the English language. Students of philosophy and of 19th-century culture will find this a demanding but satisfying read.The writings of German philosopher ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER (1788-1860) were a profound influence on art and aesthetics, music and literature in the 19th century. Among his many writings, The World as Will and Idea (1819) is considered his masterpiece.


Pdf ebook: The Basis of Morality

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Summary: "The Basis of Morality" by Arthur Schopenhauer (translated by Arthur Broderick Bullock). Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titl

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: Good Press
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Fiction
  • Number of Pages: 278
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1561
  • Downloads: 1561
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Description: "The Basis of Morality" by Arthur Schopenhauer (translated by Arthur Broderick Bullock). Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titles that encompasses every genre. From well-known classics & literary fiction and non-fiction to forgotten−or yet undiscovered gems−of world literature, we issue the books that need to be read. Each Good Press edition has been meticulously edited and formatted to boost readability for all e-readers and devices. Our goal is to produce eBooks that are user-friendly and accessible to everyone in a high-quality digital format.


Pdf ebook: The World as Will and Idea 3

Pdf download ebook The World as Will and Idea 3

Summary: If the intellect were not of a subordinate nature, as the two preceding chapters show, then everything which takes place without it, i.e., without interven

  • Author : Arthur Schopenhauer
  • Publisher: 谷月社
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: N.A
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1148
  • Downloads: 1148
  • GET BOOK

Description: If the intellect were not of a subordinate nature, as the two preceding chapters show, then everything which takes place without it, i.e., without intervention of the idea, such as reproduction, the development and maintenance of the organism, the healing of wounds, the restoration or vicarious supplementing of mutilated parts, the salutary crisis in diseases, the works of the mechanical skill of animals, and the performances of instinct would not be done so infinitely better and more perfectly than what takes place with the assistance of intellect, all conscious and intentional achievements of men, which compared with the former are mere bungling. In general nature signifies that which operates, acts, performs without the assistance of the intellect. Now, that this is really identical with what we find in ourselves as will is the general theme of this second book, and also of the essay, “Ueber den Willen in der Natur.” The possibility of this fundamental knowledge depends upon the fact that in us the will is directly lighted by the intellect, which here appears as self-consciousness; otherwise we could just as little arrive at a fuller knowledge of it within us as without us, and must for ever stop at inscrutable forces of nature. We have to ] abstract from the assistance of the intellect if we wish to comprehend the nature of the will in itself, and thereby, as far as is possible, penetrate to the inner being of nature. On this account, it may be remarked in passing, my direct antipode among philosophers is Anaxagoras; for he assumed arbitrarily as that which is first and original, from which everything proceeds, a νους, an intelligence, a subject of ideas, and he is regarded as the first who promulgated such a view. According to him the world existed earlier in the mere idea than in itself; while according to me it is the unconscious will which constitutes the reality of things, and its development must have advanced very far before it finally attains, in the animal consciousness, to the idea and intelligence; so that, according to me, thought appears as the very last. However, according to the testimony of Aristotle (Metaph., i. 4), Anaxagoras himself did not know how to begin much with his νους, but merely set it up, and then left it standing like a painted saint at the entrance, without making use of it in his development of nature, except in cases of need, when he did not know how else to help himself. All physico-theology is a carrying out of the error opposed to the truth expressed at the beginning of this chapter—the error that the most perfect form of the origin of things is that which is brought about by means of an intellect. Therefore it draws a bolt against all deep exploration of nature.