Pdf ebook: Front-Page Scotland

Pdf download ebook Front-Page Scotland

Summary: This book provides a varied, thorough and informative analysis of how newspapers covered the 2014 Scottish independence referendum in its critical final mo

  • Author : N.a
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1000474933
  • Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Number of Pages: 144
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1726
  • Downloads: 1726
  • GET BOOK

Description: This book provides a varied, thorough and informative analysis of how newspapers covered the 2014 Scottish independence referendum in its critical final months. Providing a wealth of new empirical findings, the book engages with the key themes and issues which emerge from within the discourses themselves. Among the main observations are: the marginalisation of women, both as subjects and producers of the news; the late emergence of the London-based media to take the vote entirely seriously; the often myopic focus on Alex Salmond; and the framing of the debate through contrasting narratives of positive democratic engagement and societal division within Scotland. The book will be the first point of contact for readers interested in the subject, providing an overview which is meticulously researched, authoritative and engaging, and offering broader insights in the areas of journalism, political communication and media studies.


Pdf ebook: Scotland's Referendum and the Media

Pdf download ebook Scotland's Referendum and the Media

Summary: After the Referendum on whether Scotland should become an independent country in September 2014 "e; and following a momentous mobilisation of voters by

  • Author : Neil Blain
  • Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
  • ISBN: 0748696601
  • Genre: History
  • Number of Pages: 264
  • Language: English
  • Views: 784
  • Downloads: 784
  • GET BOOK

Description: After the Referendum on whether Scotland should become an independent country in September 2014 "e; and following a momentous mobilisation of voters by both the Yes and No campaigns "e; Scotland's political environment has been fundamentally energised. But how was the Referendum campaign reported and structured in the media in Scotland, the wider United Kingdom, and in other parts of the world, and was it a matter of 'construction' rather than 'representation'?In this book scholars, commentators and journalists from Britain, Europe and beyond examine how the media across the world presented the debate itself and the shifting nature of Scottish and British identity which that debate revealed. Several of the contributors also explore how the emphases and constructions which were put on the debate in their particular countries illuminated these countries' own responses to nationalism and separatism. The consequences of the Referendum's No result are traced in the media through until the May general election of 2015.


Pdf ebook: Scotland's Referendum

Pdf download ebook Scotland's Referendum

Summary: On 18 September 2014, everyone in Scotland aged 16 or over will be asked the question: 'Should Scotland Be An Independent Country? 'As the referendum appro

  • Author : David Torrance
  • Publisher: Luath Press Ltd
  • ISBN: 1910324140
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 128
  • Language: English
  • Views: 943
  • Downloads: 943
  • GET BOOK

Description: On 18 September 2014, everyone in Scotland aged 16 or over will be asked the question: 'Should Scotland Be An Independent Country? 'As the referendum approaches, the debates over whether or not Scotland should be an independent country are becoming more heated. This guide, produced by respected Scottish journalists and authors, Jamie Maxwell and David Torrance, covers everything you need to know in advance of deciding which way to vote. Maxwell and Torrance summarise the main arguments for and against before delving into the central issues at the heart of the debate, including economics, welfare and pensions, defence and foreign affairs, and culture and national identity. They outline the way that Scotland is currently governed and review where the parties stand on the debate before concluding with speculative chapters on what happens after the vote, whether YES or NO. The referendum on 18 September 2014 is the most significant democratic event in Scotland's history. Get engaged. Be informed. Whatever you do, don't NOT vote!


Pdf ebook: The Battle for Britain

Pdf download ebook The Battle for Britain

Summary: On 18 September 2014, Scots will decide their future: should the country quit the United Kingdom and take control of its own destiny, or should it remain p

  • Author : David Torrance
  • Publisher: Biteback Publishing
  • ISBN: 1849546738
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 384
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1526
  • Downloads: 1526
  • GET BOOK

Description: On 18 September 2014, Scots will decide their future: should the country quit the United Kingdom and take control of its own destiny, or should it remain part of what advocates call the most successful political and economic union of modern times? Everyone in the country has a stake in this decision. Now, in this fascinating and insightful new book, David Torrance charts the countdown to the big day, weaving his way through a minefield of claim and counterclaim, and knocking down fictions and fallacies from both Nationalists and Unionists. He plunges into the key questions that have shaped an often-fraught argument, from the future of the pound to the shape of an independent Scottish army. With access to the strategists and opinion-makers on both sides of the political divide, this book goes straight to the heart of the great debate, providing an incisive, authoritative, occasionally trenchant guide to the most dramatic constitutional question of our times - the battle for Britain.


Pdf ebook: Should Auld Acquaintance Be Forgot

Pdf download ebook Should Auld Acquaintance Be Forgot

Summary: The Scottish nationalists seek to end the United Kingdom after 300 years of a successful union. Their drive for an independent Scotland is now nearer to su

  • Author : John Lloyd
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 150954268X
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 224
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1388
  • Downloads: 1388
  • GET BOOK

Description: The Scottish nationalists seek to end the United Kingdom after 300 years of a successful union. Their drive for an independent Scotland is now nearer to success than it has ever been. Success would mean a diminished Britain and a perilously insecure Scotland. The nationalists have represented the three centuries of union with England as a malign and damaging association for Scotland. The European Union is held out as an alternative and a safeguard for Scotland's future. But the siren call of secession would lure Scotland into a state of radical instability, disrupting ties of work, commerce and kinship and impoverishing the economy. All this with no guarantee of growth in an EU now struggling with a downturn in most of its states and the increasing disaffection of many of its members. In this incisive and controversial book, journalist John Lloyd cuts through the rhetoric to show that the economic plans of the Scottish National Party are deeply unrealistic; the loss of a subsidy of as much as £10 billion a year from the Treasury would mean large-scale cuts, much deeper than those effected by Westminster; the broadly equal provision of health, social services, education and pensions across the UK would cease, leaving Scotland with the need to recreate many of these systems on its own; and the claim that Scotland would join the most successful of the world's small states - as Denmark, New Zealand and Norway - is no more than an aspiration with little prospect of success. The alternative to independence is clear: a strong devolution settlement and a joint reform of the British union to modernise the UK's age-old structures, reduce the centralisation of power and boost the ability of all Britain's nations and regions to support and unleash their creative and productive potential. Scotland has remained a nation in union with three other nations - England, Northern Ireland and Wales. It will continue as one, more securely in a familiar companionship.


Pdf ebook: Call Me Dave

Pdf download ebook Call Me Dave

Summary: After a decade as Conservative Party leader and six years as Prime Minister, he remains an enigma to those outside his exclusive inner circle. Now, in the

  • Author : Michael Ashcroft
  • Publisher: Biteback Publishing
  • ISBN: 1849549907
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 592
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1594
  • Downloads: 1594
  • GET BOOK

Description: After a decade as Conservative Party leader and six years as Prime Minister, he remains an enigma to those outside his exclusive inner circle. Now, in the wake of his dramatic resignation following the sensational EU referendum campaign, this new edition of the book that 'got the world talking' (Daily Mail) revisits the real David Cameron, bringing the story of his premiership to its final chapter. Based on hundreds of interviews with colleagues past and present, friends and foes, this unauthorised biography charts Cameron's path from a blissful childhood in rural Berkshire through to the most powerful office in the country, giving a fascinating insight into his most intriguing relationships, both political and personal. Exploring the highs and lows of his administration, from his brush with disaster over the Scottish question and his humiliation over Syria to his surprise election victory in 2015 and his controversial win on gay marriage, this fully updated edition offers a comprehensive assessment of Cameron's legacy in office, weighing up the extraordinary achievements of Britain's youngest Prime Minister for 200 years.


Pdf ebook: The Oxford Handbook of Scottish Politics

Pdf download ebook The Oxford Handbook of Scottish Politics

Summary: The Handbook of Scottish Politics provides a detailed overview of politics in Scotland, looking at areas such as elections and electoral behaviour, public

  • Author : Michael Keating
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0192558706
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 720
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1690
  • Downloads: 1690
  • GET BOOK

Description: The Handbook of Scottish Politics provides a detailed overview of politics in Scotland, looking at areas such as elections and electoral behaviour, public policy, political parties, and Scotland's relationship with the EU and the wider world. The contributors to this volume are some of the leading experts on politics in Scotland.


Pdf ebook: Electoral Shocks

Pdf download ebook Electoral Shocks

Summary: This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International licence. It is free to read at Oxford Scholarship Online and offe

  • Author : Edward Fieldhouse,Jane Green,Geoffrey Evans,Jonathan Mellon,Christopher Prosser,Hermann Schmitt,Cees van der Eijk
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0192520857
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 320
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1391
  • Downloads: 1391
  • GET BOOK

Description: This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International licence. It is free to read at Oxford Scholarship Online and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations. Electoral Shocks: The Volatile Voter in a Turbulent World offers a novel perspective on British elections, focusing on the role of electoral shocks in the context of increasing electoral volatility. It demonstrates and explains the long-term trend in volatility, how shocks have contributed to the level of electoral volatility, and also which parties have benefited from the ensuing volatility. It follows in the tradition of British Election Study books, providing a comprehensive account of specific election outcomes- the General Elections of 2015 and 2017-and a more general and novel approach to understanding electoral change. The authors examine five electoral shocks that affected the elections of 2015 and 2017: the rise in immigration after 2004, particularly from Eastern Europe; the Global Financial Crisis prior to 2010; the coalition government of the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats between 2010 and 2015; the Scottish Independence Referendum in 2014; and the European Union Referendum in 2016. The focus on electoral shocks offers an overarching explanation for the volatility in British elections, alongside the long-term trends that have led to this point. It offers a way to understand the rise and fall of the UK Independence Party (UKIP), Labour's disappointing 2015 performance and its later unexpected gains, the collapse in support for the Liberal Democrats, the dramatic gains of the Scottish National Party (SNP) in 2015, and the continuing period of tumultuous politics that has followed the EU referendum and the General Election of 2017. It provides a new way of understanding electoral choice in Britain, and also beyond, and a better understanding of the outcomes of recent elections.


Pdf ebook: Time and Action in the Scottish Independence Referendum

Pdf download ebook Time and Action in the Scottish Independence Referendum

Summary: This book describes the recent Scottish independence referendum as the latest incarnation of a contest between two times on one hand, an ideally continuous

  • Author : Michael Gardiner
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 1137545941
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 99
  • Language: English
  • Views: 511
  • Downloads: 511
  • GET BOOK

Description: This book describes the recent Scottish independence referendum as the latest incarnation of a contest between two times on one hand, an ideally continuous time beyond determination underpinning financial sovereignty, on the other the interruptions to this ideal continuity inherent in human action.


Pdf ebook: Debating Scotland

Pdf download ebook Debating Scotland

Summary: On 18 September 2014, Scotland held a referendum on the question: Should Scotland be an independent country? This is a most unusual event in modern democra

  • Author : Michael Keating
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0192507052
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 248
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1155
  • Downloads: 1155
  • GET BOOK

Description: On 18 September 2014, Scotland held a referendum on the question: Should Scotland be an independent country? This is a most unusual event in modern democracies and engaged the political class, civil society, and the general public to an unprecedented degree, leading to an 85 per cent turnout in the final vote. This was an occasion to debate not just the narrow constitutional issue but the future of the nation, including the economy, social welfare, defence and security, and Scotland's place in Europe and the world. Debating Scotland comes from a team of researchers who observed the debates from close-up and engaged with both sides, with the media and with the public in analyzing the issues, while remaining neutral on the independence question. The book examines the main issues at stake, how they were presented, and how they evolved over the course of the campaign. The editors and contributing authors explore the ways both independence and union were framed, the economic issues, the currency, welfare, defence and security, the European Union, and how the example of small independent states was used. The volume concludes with an analysis of voter responses, based upon original survey research, which demonstrates how perceptions of risk and uncertainty on the main issues played a key role in the outcome.


Pdf ebook: Whatever Happened to Tory Scotland?

Pdf download ebook Whatever Happened to Tory Scotland?

Summary: Explores the history and ideas of the Scottish Conservative Party since its creation in 1912. You might not believe it now, but the Scottish Conservative P

  • Author : David Torrance
  • Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
  • ISBN: 0748646884
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 160
  • Language: English
  • Views: 404
  • Downloads: 404
  • GET BOOK

Description: Explores the history and ideas of the Scottish Conservative Party since its creation in 1912. You might not believe it now, but the Scottish Conservative Party played a significant role in the politics of Scotland during the last century. The party governed Scotland and the UK for much of the 20th century. But their support has nosedived from a majority of votes and seats at the 1955 general election to just a single constituency and 17 per cent of the vote in May 2010. This collection brings together academics, writers, commentators and analysts of Scottish politics to address the nature of the Scottish Conservative Party: its standing in Scotland, its influence on the Union, its role in the Scottish Parliament and why it fell so out of favour with the Scottish electorate.


Pdf ebook: The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics

Pdf download ebook The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics

Summary: Social media are now widely used for political protests, campaigns, and communication in developed and developing nations, but available research has not y

  • Author : Axel Bruns,Gunn Enli,Eli Skogerbo,Anders Olof Larsson,Christian Christensen
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317506561
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 538
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1131
  • Downloads: 1131
  • GET BOOK

Description: Social media are now widely used for political protests, campaigns, and communication in developed and developing nations, but available research has not yet paid sufficient attention to experiences beyond the US and UK. This collection tackles this imbalance head-on, compiling cutting-edge research across six continents to provide a comprehensive, global, up-to-date review of recent political uses of social media. Drawing together empirical analyses of the use of social media by political movements and in national and regional elections and referenda, The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics presents studies ranging from Anonymous and the Arab Spring to the Greek Aganaktismenoi, and from South Korean presidential elections to the Scottish independence referendum. The book is framed by a selection of keystone theoretical contributions, evaluating and updating existing frameworks for the social media age.


Pdf ebook: The Scottish Independence Referendum

Pdf download ebook The Scottish Independence Referendum

Summary: The September 2014 Scottish independence referendum was an event of profound constitutional and political significance, not only for Scotland, but for the

  • Author : Aileen McHarg,Tom Mullen,Alan Page,Neil Walker
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0191072028
  • Genre: Law
  • Number of Pages: 340
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1411
  • Downloads: 1411
  • GET BOOK

Description: The September 2014 Scottish independence referendum was an event of profound constitutional and political significance, not only for Scotland, but for the UK as a whole. Although Scottish voters chose to remain in the UK, the experience of the referendum and the subsequent political reaction to the 'No' vote that triggered significant reforms to the devolution settlement have fundamentally altered Scotland's position within the Union. The extraordinary success of the Scottish National Party at the 2015 General Election also indicates that the territorial dimension to UK constitutional politics is more prominent than ever, destabilising key assumptions about the location and exercise of constitutional authority within the UK. The political and constitutional implications of the referendum are still unfolding, and it is by no means certain that the Union will survive. Providing a systematic and academic analysis of the referendum and its aftermath, this interdisciplinary edited collection brings together public lawyers, political scientists, economists, and historians in an effort to look both backwards to, and forwards from, the referendum. The chapters evaluate the historical events leading up to the referendum, the referendum process, and the key issues arising from the referendum debate. They also explore the implications of the referendum both for the future governance of Scotland and for the UK's territorial constitution, drawing on comparative experience in order to understand how the constitution may evolve, and how the independence debate may play out in future.


Pdf ebook: Scottish Independence

Pdf download ebook Scottish Independence

Summary: How might Scotland achieve independence? And what would be the consequences, for Scotland and the rest of the UK? Independence is ever-present on the Scott

  • Author : Murkens Jo E. Murkens
  • Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
  • ISBN: 1474471196
  • Genre: Constitutional law
  • Number of Pages: 336
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1082
  • Downloads: 1082
  • GET BOOK

Description: How might Scotland achieve independence? And what would be the consequences, for Scotland and the rest of the UK? Independence is ever-present on the Scottish political agenda. This book is the first serious study of the likely road to independence, and the consequences for the Scottish people and the Scottish economy. Scottish Independence starts with a detailed guide to the stages along the route to independence and goes on to analyse the legal, political and economic consequences. It asks key questions:*If Scots vote for an SNP government in Edinburgh, how will that government deliver its manifesto promise of achieving independence in Scotland? *If the Scots attain independence, what will change? What will Scotland's place be in the world? Can Scotland remain in the EU?*What are the economics of independence? Would there be a flight of capital and a stock-market fall? How much economic freedom would an independent Scotland have?*How much would change in the daily lives of Scots as a result of independence? How much autonomy would Scotland have as a small independent state in Europe?Scottish Independence will have an impact on public policy and on academic thinking, and is of key interest to politicians, civil servants, academics, journalists and anyone interested in Scotland's future.


Pdf ebook: Comparing Devolved Governance

Pdf download ebook Comparing Devolved Governance

Summary: Examines recent evidence of a growing symmetry in the operation of devolution in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. This book makes one of the first sys

  • Author : D. Birrell
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 0230389791
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 277
  • Language: English
  • Views: 553
  • Downloads: 553
  • GET BOOK

Description: Examines recent evidence of a growing symmetry in the operation of devolution in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. This book makes one of the first systematic and detailed comparisons of the operation of the devolved institutions and machinery of governance. It uses a comparative approach to explore the key workings of government.


Pdf ebook: The Kingdom to Come

Pdf download ebook The Kingdom to Come

Summary: Despite the “No” vote in the Scottish Independence Referendum of September 2014, the issue of potential Scottish secession from the United Kingdom has

  • Author : Peter Hennessy
  • Publisher: Haus Publishing
  • ISBN: 191037623X
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 198
  • Language: English
  • Views: 414
  • Downloads: 414
  • GET BOOK

Description: Despite the “No” vote in the Scottish Independence Referendum of September 2014, the issue of potential Scottish secession from the United Kingdom has likely only just begun. The Kingdom to Come is the first book-length look at the consequences and implications of this momentous event. Peter Hennessy discusses the run-up to the Scottish Independence Referendum and its immediate aftermath, as well as the constitutional issues the referendum opened for the entire United Kingdom. This book includes Hennessy’s personal impressions of recent questioning of the Acts of Union that created Great Britain and describes when he, as the top expert on Britain’s unwritten constitution, became an important voice in what might happen next. The Kingdom to Come also offers a valuable examination of the possible agenda for remaking the constitution in both the medium and long term.


Pdf ebook: Language, Democracy, and the Paradox of Constituent Power

Pdf download ebook Language, Democracy, and the Paradox of Constituent Power

Summary: In this book, Catherine Frost uses evidence and case studies to offer a re-examination of declarations of independence and the language that comprises such

  • Author : Catherine Frost
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 0429884737
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 180
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1085
  • Downloads: 1085
  • GET BOOK

Description: In this book, Catherine Frost uses evidence and case studies to offer a re-examination of declarations of independence and the language that comprises such documents. Considered as a quintessential form of founding speech in the modern era, declarations of independence are however poorly understood as a form of expression, and no one can completely account for how they work. Beginning with the founding speech in the American Declaration, Frost uses insights drawn from unexpected or unlikely forms of founding in cases like Ireland and Canada to reconsider the role of time and loss in how such speech is framed. She brings the discussion up to date by looking at recent debates in Scotland, where an undeclared declaration of independence overshadows contemporary politics. Drawing on the work of Hannah Arendt and using a contextualist, comparative theory method, Frost demonstrates that the capacity for renewal through speech arises in aspects of language that operate beyond conventional performativity. Language, Democracy, and the Paradox of Constituent Power is an excellent resource for researchers and students of political theory, democratic theory, law, constitutionalism, and political history.


Pdf ebook: Socialism & Hope

Pdf download ebook Socialism & Hope

Summary: The last few years have seen a Scottish independence referendum, a couple of General Elections and a vote on whether or not we should remain in the Europea

  • Author : Neil Findlay
  • Publisher: Luath Press Ltd
  • ISBN: 1912387077
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 267
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1173
  • Downloads: 1173
  • GET BOOK

Description: The last few years have seen a Scottish independence referendum, a couple of General Elections and a vote on whether or not we should remain in the European Union. Throw in two uncompromising Labour leadership battles at UK level and a couple in Scotland, and it would be true to say that nothing less than a political whirlwind has swept through the corridors of the Scottish Parliament since it ‘reconvened’ in 1999. Following the turbulent six years for which Neil Findlay has been a member of the Scottish Parliament for Lothian, Socialism & Hope tracks the highs and lows of his personal and political life. From standing in the 2014 election to become the Leader of the Scottish Labour Party, to acting as Jeremy Corbyn’s Scottish campaign chief in the 2015 and 2016 leadership elections, Neil’s political career has been tireless and active. This book, described by Jeremy Corbyn as ‘an honest, frank and challenging – as well as humorous of course – account of his time [...] at the forefront of Scottish politics’, also includes Neil’s inside view on the events of the 2014 Scottish Referendum and the rise of a more socialist Labour Party. With its entertaining narrative, it provides unprecedented and personal insights from within the political sphere itself. As well as surveying the past few years of political tumult, Socialism & Hope also looks forward to envision a society transformed by a revitalised Labour movement.


Pdf ebook: Scottish Independence

Pdf download ebook Scottish Independence

Summary: How might Scotland achieve independence? And what would be the consequences, for Scotland and the rest of the UK? Independence is ever-present on the Scott

  • Author : Murkens Jo E. Murkens
  • Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
  • ISBN: 1474471196
  • Genre: Constitutional law
  • Number of Pages: 336
  • Language: English
  • Views: 644
  • Downloads: 644
  • GET BOOK

Description: How might Scotland achieve independence? And what would be the consequences, for Scotland and the rest of the UK? Independence is ever-present on the Scottish political agenda. This book is the first serious study of the likely road to independence, and the consequences for the Scottish people and the Scottish economy. Scottish Independence starts with a detailed guide to the stages along the route to independence and goes on to analyse the legal, political and economic consequences. It asks key questions:*If Scots vote for an SNP government in Edinburgh, how will that government deliver its manifesto promise of achieving independence in Scotland? *If the Scots attain independence, what will change? What will Scotland's place be in the world? Can Scotland remain in the EU?*What are the economics of independence? Would there be a flight of capital and a stock-market fall? How much economic freedom would an independent Scotland have?*How much would change in the daily lives of Scots as a result of independence? How much autonomy would Scotland have as a small independent state in Europe?Scottish Independence will have an impact on public policy and on academic thinking, and is of key interest to politicians, civil servants, academics, journalists and anyone interested in Scotland's future.


Pdf ebook: The Routledge Handbook to Referendums and Direct Democracy

Pdf download ebook The Routledge Handbook to Referendums and Direct Democracy

Summary: Over the last 30 years referendums have played an increasingly important role in determining government policy. Recent high profile referendums in Scotland

  • Author : Laurence Morel,Matt Qvortrup
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351360728
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 530
  • Language: English
  • Views: 456
  • Downloads: 456
  • GET BOOK

Description: Over the last 30 years referendums have played an increasingly important role in determining government policy. Recent high profile referendums in Scotland, Catalonia and Ukraine have continued the movement towards independence referendums following decolonization and the end of the Cold War. The Greek bailout referendum and Britain’s vote on membership of the EU reflect a tradition of European states giving their people a direct say in the transfer of sovereign powers to the European Union seen through the ratification of key treaties such as Maastricht, Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon. This Routledge Handbook covers key aspects and issues of direct democracy and referendums throughout the world including: •their history; •when, why, where, how and on which issues referendums are held; •why some referendums are more democratic than others; •how referendums are won; •whether they produce good policies; •if referendums increase participation and improve the quality of representative democracies; •do referendums increase trust in democracy and the political actors; •the impact of new technology on the possibilities, methods and frequency of direct public political participation; •how they should be regulated. Covering other related areas such as recall, citizen juries and random selection, this compendium is an indispensable guide to referendums and the workings of modern democracy.