Pdf ebook: The Psychology of Socialism

Pdf download ebook The Psychology of Socialism

Summary: First published in 1899 during a period of crisis for French democracy, The Psychology of Socialism details Le Bon's view of socialism and radicalism prima

  • Author : N.a
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351475894
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 466
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1688
  • Downloads: 1688
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Description: First published in 1899 during a period of crisis for French democracy, The Psychology of Socialism details Le Bon's view of socialism and radicalism primarily as religious movements. The emotionalism and hysteria of the period-especially as manifested during the Dreyfuss Affair-convinced Le Bon that most political controversy is based neither on reasoned deliberation nor rational interest, but on a psychology that partakes of contatgion andhysteria. Le Bon points to the irrationality of religion and uses the religiosity of socialism to debunk socialism as an irrational movement based on hatred and jealousy.


Pdf ebook: The Psychology of Marxian Socialism

Pdf download ebook The Psychology of Marxian Socialism

Summary: This classic work on the psychology of socialism carries for this edition a slightly refurbished title. By calling it The Psychology of Marxian Socialism,

  • Author : Henry de Man
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1000680029
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 520
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1932
  • Downloads: 1932
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Description: This classic work on the psychology of socialism carries for this edition a slightly refurbished title. By calling it The Psychology of Marxian Socialism, the work is sharply distinguished from an earlier work of the same title (written at a much earlier time) by Gustave LeBon. This book was written in the post-Bolshevik revolutionary era, at the height of the Weimar democracy in Germany; LeBon’s represents a fin de siècle effort, reflecting earlier concerns in socialist theory. De Man’s work derives its strength from a close and hard look at how socialism operated in one country. It is probably one of the greatest such efforts in the post-World War I period.


Pdf ebook: The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind

Pdf download ebook The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind

Summary: One of the most influential works of social psychology in history, The Crowd was highly instrumental in creating this field of study by analyzing, in detai

  • Author : Gustave Le Bon
  • Publisher: Strelbytskyy Multimedia Publishing
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Number of Pages: N.A
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1901
  • Downloads: 1901
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Description: One of the most influential works of social psychology in history, The Crowd was highly instrumental in creating this field of study by analyzing, in detail, mass behavior. The work is devoted to an account of the characteristics of crowds. The whole of the common characteristics with which heredity endows the individuals of a race constitute the genius of the race. When, however, a certain number of these individuals are gathered together in a crowd for purposes of action, observation proves that, from the mere fact of their being assembled, there result certain new psychological characteristics, which are added to the racial characteristics and differ from them at times to a very considerable degree. Although the volume focuses on crowd psychology, it is also brilliantly instructive on the effects of the generally accepted beliefs of a nation's citizenry on the processes of history. Among the topics covered here are general characteristics and mental unity of the crowd; the crowd's sentiments and morality; its ideas, reasoning power, and imagination; opinions and beliefs of crowds and the means used by leaders to persuade; classification of crowds, including criminal and electrical assemblages, as well as the functioning of criminal juries and parliamentary assemblies.


Pdf ebook: The Psychology of Revolution

Pdf download ebook The Psychology of Revolution

Summary: Often, revolts and uprisings are regarded as being solely the results of a perfect storm of geopolitical, societal, and economic factors. But as French soc

  • Author : Gustave Le Bon
  • Publisher: The Floating Press
  • ISBN: 1776583817
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 282
  • Language: English
  • Views: 519
  • Downloads: 519
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Description: Often, revolts and uprisings are regarded as being solely the results of a perfect storm of geopolitical, societal, and economic factors. But as French sociologist Gustave Le Bon astutely points out in The Psychology of Revolution, more personal variables enter into the revolutionary equation, as well. He parses several historical revolutions and identifies psychological, mental, and emotional factors that proved to be important.


Pdf ebook: History of Socialism

Pdf download ebook History of Socialism

Summary: First published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

  • Author : Harry W. Laidler
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136231439
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 984
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1496
  • Downloads: 1496
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Description: First published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.


Pdf ebook: The Style and Mythology of Socialism: Socialist Idealism, 1871-1914

Pdf download ebook The Style and Mythology of Socialism: Socialist Idealism, 1871-1914

Summary: Arguably no modern ideology has diffused as fast as Socialism. From the mid-nineteenth century to the last quarter of the twentieth socialist ideals played

  • Author : Stefan Arvidsson
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351732269
  • Genre: History
  • Number of Pages: 324
  • Language: English
  • Views: 985
  • Downloads: 985
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Description: Arguably no modern ideology has diffused as fast as Socialism. From the mid-nineteenth century to the last quarter of the twentieth socialist ideals played a crucial part not only in the political sphere, but also influenced the way people worked and played, thought and felt, designed and decorated, hoped and yearned. By proposing general observations on the relationship between socialism, imagination, myth and utopia, as well as bringing the late nineteenth century socialist culture – a culture imbued with Biblical narratives, Christian symbols, classic mythology, rituals from freemasonry, Viking romanticism, and utopian speculations – together under the novel term ‘socialist idealism’, The Style and Mythology of Socialism: Socialist Idealism, 1871–1914 draws attention to the symbolic, artistic and rhetorical ways that socialism originally set the hearts of people on fire.


Pdf ebook: An Archaeology of Socialism

Pdf download ebook An Archaeology of Socialism

Summary: This highly original case study, which adopts a material culture perspective, is unprecedented in social and cultural histories of the Soviet period and pr

  • Author : Victor Buchli
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1000180662
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 240
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1644
  • Downloads: 1644
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Description: This highly original case study, which adopts a material culture perspective, is unprecedented in social and cultural histories of the Soviet period and provides a unique window on social relations. The author demonstrates how Moisei Ginzburg's Constructivist masterpiece, the Narkomfin Communal House, employed classic Marxist understandings of material culture in an effort to overturn capitalist and patriarchal social structures. Through the edifying effects of architectural forms, Ginzburg attempted to induce socialist and feminist-inspired social and gender relations. The author shows how, for the inhabitants, these principles manifested themselves, from taste to hygiene to gender roles, and how individuals variously appropriated architectural space and material culture to cope with the conditions of daily life, from the utopianism of the First Five Year Plan and Stalin's purges to the collapse of the Soviet Union. This book makes a major contribution to: the history of socialism in the Soviet Union and, more generally, Eastern Europe; material culture studies; architectural history; archaeology and social anthropology.


Pdf ebook: Socialism and Legal History

Pdf download ebook Socialism and Legal History

Summary: This book focuses on the way in which legal historians and legal scientists used the past to legitimize, challenge, explain and familiarize the socialist l

  • Author : Ville Erkkilä,Hans-Peter Haferkamp
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1000213730
  • Genre: History
  • Number of Pages: 204
  • Language: English
  • Views: 792
  • Downloads: 792
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Description: This book focuses on the way in which legal historians and legal scientists used the past to legitimize, challenge, explain and familiarize the socialist legal orders, which were backed by dictatorial governments. The volume studies legal historians and legal histories written in Eastern European countries during the socialist era after the Second World War. The book investigates whether there was a unified form of socialist legal historiography, and if so, what can be said of its common features. The individual chapters of this volume concentrate on the regimes that situate between the Russian, and later Soviet, legal culture and the area covered by the German Civil Code. Hence, the geographical focus of the book is on East Germany, Russia, the Baltic states, Poland and Hungary. The approach is transnational, focusing on the interaction and intertwinement of the then hegemonic communist ideology and the ideas of law and justice, as they appeared in the writings of legal historians of the socialist legal orders. Such an angle enables concentration on the dynamics between politics and law as well as identities and legal history. Studying the socialist interpretations of legal history reveals the ways in which the 20th century legal scholars, situated between legal renewal and political guidance gave legitimacy to, struggled to come to terms with, and sketched the future of the socialist legal orders. The book will be a valuable resource for academics and researchers working in the areas of Legal History, Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law and European Studies. The Open Access version of this book, available at https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/socialism-legal-history-ville-erkkil%C3%A4-hans-peter-haferkamp/e/10.4324/9780367814670?context=ubx&refId=2db6d49f-af1c-4b51-9503-9673a131f541, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license.”


Pdf ebook: The Construction of a National Socialist Europe during the Second World War

Pdf download ebook The Construction of a National Socialist Europe during the Second World War

Summary: Throughout the Second World War, the term ‘Europe’ featured prominently in National Socialist rhetoric. This book reconstructs what Europe stood for in

  • Author : Raimund Bauer
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 0429883412
  • Genre: History
  • Number of Pages: 196
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1989
  • Downloads: 1989
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Description: Throughout the Second World War, the term ‘Europe’ featured prominently in National Socialist rhetoric. This book reconstructs what Europe stood for in National Socialist Germany, analyses how the interplay of its defining elements changed dependent on the war, and shows that the new European order was neither an empty phrase born out of propaganda, nor was it anti-European. Tying in with long-standing traditions of German European, völkisch, and economic thinking, imaginations of a New Order became a central category in contemporary political and economic decision-making processes, justifying cooperation as well as exploitation, violence, and murder.


Pdf ebook: The Socialist Life of Modern Architecture

Pdf download ebook The Socialist Life of Modern Architecture

Summary: The Socialist Life of Modern Architecture is the first systematic architectural history of Romania under socialism written in English. It examines the mech

  • Author : Juliana Maxim
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317590600
  • Genre: Architecture
  • Number of Pages: 188
  • Language: English
  • Views: 881
  • Downloads: 881
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Description: The Socialist Life of Modern Architecture is the first systematic architectural history of Romania under socialism written in English. It examines the mechanisms through which modern architecture was invested with political meaning and, in reverse, how specific architectural solutions came to define the socialist experience. Each of the book’s three parts traces the historical development of one key aspect of Romania’s architectural culture between the years 1949–1964: the planning and construction of housing districts in Bucharest; the role of typification of design and standardization of construction in a project of cultural transformation; the production and management of a folk architectural tradition. Going beyond buildings and architects to consider the use of photography, painting, and novels, as well as narrations of history and the formation of an ethnographic architectural heritage, the author explores how buildings came to participate in the cultural imagination of socialism—and became, in fact, a privileged medium of socialism. Part of the growing interest in the significance of Soviet Bloc architecture, this is an important contribution to the fields of architectural history, cultural history, and visual culture.


Pdf ebook: A History of National Socialism (RLE Responding to Fascism)

Pdf download ebook A History of National Socialism (RLE Responding to Fascism)

Summary: Konrad Heiden was an influential journalist and historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Eras. He became an early critic of National Socialism after atten

  • Author : Konrad Heiden
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136960929
  • Genre: History
  • Number of Pages: 464
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1099
  • Downloads: 1099
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Description: Konrad Heiden was an influential journalist and historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Eras. He became an early critic of National Socialism after attending a party meeting in 1920. First published in English in 1934, A History of National Socialism provides a detailed account of the growth of the movement through the 1920’s until its assumption of full control of Germany in 1934. It argues that Nazi ideology was extremely pragmatic and able to accommodate a wide diversity of opinion in return for the unconditional support of Hitler as leader.


Pdf ebook: The Genetics of Political Behavior

Pdf download ebook The Genetics of Political Behavior

Summary: In this unique amalgam of neuroscience, genetics, and evolutionary psychology, Ryan argues that leftists and rightists are biologically distinct versions o

  • Author : Michael Ryan
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1000262286
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 192
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1361
  • Downloads: 1361
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Description: In this unique amalgam of neuroscience, genetics, and evolutionary psychology, Ryan argues that leftists and rightists are biologically distinct versions of the human species that came into being at different moments in human evolution. The book argues that the varying requirements of survival at different points in history explain why leftists and rightists have anatomically different brains as well as radically distinct behavioral traits. Rightist traits such as callousness and fearfulness emerged early in evolution when violence was pervasive in human life and survival depended on the fearful anticipation of danger. Leftist traits such as pro-sociality and empathy emerged later as environmental adversity made it necessary for humans to live in larger social groups that required new adaptive behavior. The book also explores new evolutionary theories that emphasize the role of the environment in shaping not only human political behavior but also humans' genetic architecture. With implications for the future of politics, the book explores how the niche worlds we build for ourselves through political action can have consequences for the evolution of the species. Proposing a new way of understanding human politics, this is fascinating reading for students and academics in psychology, the social sciences, and humanities, as well as general readers interested in political behavior.


Pdf ebook: Maps of Meaning

Pdf download ebook Maps of Meaning

Summary: Why have people from different cultures and eras formulated myths and stories with similar structures? What does this similarity tell us about the mind, mo

  • Author : Jordan B. Peterson
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135961743
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Number of Pages: 564
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1440
  • Downloads: 1440
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Description: Why have people from different cultures and eras formulated myths and stories with similar structures? What does this similarity tell us about the mind, morality, and structure of the world itself? From the author of 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos comes a provocative hypothesis that explores the connection between what modern neuropsychology tells us about the brain and what rituals, myths, and religious stories have long narrated. A cutting-edge work that brings together neuropsychology, cognitive science, and Freudian and Jungian approaches to mythology and narrative, Maps of Meaning presents a rich theory that makes the wisdom and meaning of myth accessible to the critical modern mind.


Pdf ebook: The Cultural Economy of Protest in Post-Socialist European Union

Pdf download ebook The Cultural Economy of Protest in Post-Socialist European Union

Summary: Focusing on Slovakia and East Central Europe, this book examines the cultural economy of protest and considers how the origins of political movements – p

  • Author : Juraj Buzalka
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1000175995
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 216
  • Language: English
  • Views: 734
  • Downloads: 734
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Description: Focusing on Slovakia and East Central Europe, this book examines the cultural economy of protest and considers how the origins of political movements – progressive and reactionary – derive from resilient agrarian features. It draws attention to how the legacy of rural socialist modernization influences contemporary politics and to the ‘village’ version of fascism developing in the region. The chapters look at the interplay of post-peasant economic and political habits and representations as a result of state-socialism and with regard to the European project, as viewed through an ethnographic lens. Juraj Buzalka describes the bulk of Slovak citizens as post-socialist Europeans with a connection to the countryside who feel that this is where real power in society should be defined and based. He also observes the politicians who are skillfully mobilizing post-peasants while exploiting the political-economic context of the European Union. This volume will be relevant to scholars with an interest in European society and politics, particularly protest and populism, from disciplines including anthropology, sociology, political science and history.


Pdf ebook: Vygotsky and Marx

Pdf download ebook Vygotsky and Marx

Summary: This important book fills two interrelated gaps in the field of psychology, first by developing a Marxist orientation to psychology and second by explainin

  • Author : Carl Ratner,Daniele Nunes Henrique Silva
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • ISBN: 1351996959
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Number of Pages: 208
  • Language: English
  • Views: 361
  • Downloads: 361
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Description: This important book fills two interrelated gaps in the field of psychology, first by developing a Marxist orientation to psychology and second by explaining how psychological pioneer Lev Vygotsky contributed greatly to this trend. Through outlining core principles in Marxist psychology, the book offers a framework for continuing Vygotsky’s Marxist legacy in new areas of the field. This book first documents the neglect in Vygotskyian studies of his deep use of Marxist concepts, and then subsequent chapters overcome this neglect. They explain the use of many Marxist concepts in his theoretical and methodological writings, demonstrating how Vygotsky utilized specific Marxist meanings in his work on consciousness, signs, development, imagination, creativity, secondary language acquisition, and unit of analysis. Chapters also address how Vygotsky dealt with incompatible theories and methodologies, illustrating how Marxist and Vygotskyian psychology can grow from anti-Marxist, anti-Vygotskyian approaches to psychology, such as psychoanalysis. This book marks an original contribution to the field of psychology, offering a new understanding of both Vygotsky’s work and cultural and Marxist psychology. Furthermore, it expands the field of Marxism to include psychology. It will be of interest to all students and researchers of cultural, educational, and developmental psychology as well as the history of psychology. It will also appeal to social theorists and Marxist scholars.


Pdf ebook: The Making of British Socialism

Pdf download ebook The Making of British Socialism

Summary: A compelling look at the origins of British socialism The Making of British Socialism provides a new interpretation of the emergence of British socialism i

  • Author : Mark Bevir
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 1400840287
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 368
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1431
  • Downloads: 1431
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Description: A compelling look at the origins of British socialism The Making of British Socialism provides a new interpretation of the emergence of British socialism in the late nineteenth century, demonstrating that it was not a working-class movement demanding state action, but a creative campaign of political hope promoting social justice, personal transformation, and radical democracy. Mark Bevir shows that British socialists responded to the dilemmas of economics and faith against a background of diverse traditions, melding new economic theories opposed to capitalism with new theologies which argued that people were bound in divine fellowship. Bevir utilizes an impressive range of sources to illuminate a number of historical questions: Why did the British Marxists follow a Tory aristocrat who dressed in a frock coat and top hat? Did the Fabians develop a new economic theory? What was the role of Christian theology and idealist philosophy in shaping socialist ideas? He explores debates about capitalism, revolution, the simple life, sexual relations, and utopian communities. He gives detailed accounts of the Marxists, Fabians, and ethical socialists, including famous authors such as William Morris and George Bernard Shaw. And he locates these socialists among a wide cast of colorful characters, including Karl Marx, Henry Thoreau, Leo Tolstoy, and Oscar Wilde. By showing how socialism combined established traditions and new ideas in order to respond to the changing world of the late nineteenth century, The Making of British Socialism turns aside long-held assumptions about the origins of a major movement.


Pdf ebook: The True Believer

Pdf download ebook The True Believer

Summary: A part of Harper Perennial’s special “Resistance Library” highlighting classic works that illuminate the “Age of Trump”: A boldly packaged reissu

  • Author : Eric Hoffer
  • Publisher: Harper Collins
  • ISBN: 0062029355
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 192
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1143
  • Downloads: 1143
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Description: A part of Harper Perennial’s special “Resistance Library” highlighting classic works that illuminate the “Age of Trump”: A boldly packaged reissue of the classic examination of dangerous nationalist political movements. “Its theme is political fanaticism, with which it deals severely and brilliantly.” —New Yorker A stevedore on the San Francisco docks in the 1940s, Eric Hoffer wrote philosophical treatises in his spare time while living in the railroad yards. The True Believer—the first and most famous of his books—was made into a bestseller when President Eisenhower cited it during one of the earliest television press conferences. Called a “brilliant and original inquiry” and “a genuine contribution to our social thought” by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., this landmark in the field of social psychology is completely relevant and essential for understanding the world today as it delivers a visionary, highly provocative look into the mind of the fanatic and a penetrating study of how an individual becomes one.


Pdf ebook: The Socialist System

Pdf download ebook The Socialist System

Summary: To understand the dramatic collapse of the socialist order and the current turmoil in the formerly communist world, this comprehensive work examines the mo

  • Author : János Kornai
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 0691228027
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 672
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1157
  • Downloads: 1157
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Description: To understand the dramatic collapse of the socialist order and the current turmoil in the formerly communist world, this comprehensive work examines the most important common properties of all socialist societies. JNBnos Kornai brings a life-long study of the problems of the socialist system to his explanation of why inherent attributes of socialism inevitably produced in-efficiency. In his past work he has focused on the economic sphere, maintaining consistently that the weak economic performance of socialist countries resulted from the system itself, not from the personalities of top leaders or mistakes made by leading organizations and planners. This book synthesizes themes from his earlier investigations, while broadening the discussion to include the role of the political power structure and of communist ideology. Kornai distinguishes between two types, or historical phases, of socialism. The "classical socialism" of Stalin, Mao, and their followers is totalitarian and brutally repressive, but its components fit together and make up a coherent edifice. Associated with names like Tito, KNBdar, Deng-Xiaoping, and Gorbachev, "reform socialism" relaxes repression, but brings about a sharpening of inner contradictions and the eventual dissolution of the system. Kornai examines the classical system in the first half of the book, and moves on to explore the complex process of reform in the second half. The Socialist System is addressed to economists in the first place, but also to political scientists, sociologists, and historians. In addition, it will appeal to policymakers, business analysts, and government officials who need to understand either formerly or presently communist countries.


Pdf ebook: United States of Socialism

Pdf download ebook United States of Socialism

Summary: The New York Times, USA Today, Publishers Weekly, and Wall Street Journal Bestseller For those who witnessed the global collapse of socialism, its resurrec

  • Author : Dinesh D'Souza
  • Publisher: All Points Books
  • ISBN: 1250758300
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 288
  • Language: English
  • Views: 508
  • Downloads: 508
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Description: The New York Times, USA Today, Publishers Weekly, and Wall Street Journal Bestseller For those who witnessed the global collapse of socialism, its resurrection in the twenty-first century comes as a surprise, even a shock. How can socialism work now when it has never worked before? In this pathbreaking book, bestselling author Dinesh D’Souza argues that the socialism advanced today by the likes of Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Bernie Sanders, Ilhan Omar and Elizabeth Warren is very different from the socialism of Lenin, Mao and Castro. It is “identity socialism,” a marriage between classic socialism and identity politics. Today’s socialists claim to model themselves not on Mao’s Great Leap Forward or even Venezuelan socialism but rather on the “socialism that works” in Scandinavian countries like Norway and Sweden. This is the new face of socialism that D’Souza confronts and decisively refutes with his trademark incisiveness, wit and originality. He shows how socialism abandoned the working class and found new recruits by drawing on the resentments of race, gender and sexual orientation. He reveals how it uses the Venezuelan, not the Scandinavian, formula. D’Souza chillingly documents the full range of lawless, gangster, and authoritarian tendencies that they have adopted. United States of Socialism is an informative, provocative and thrilling exposé not merely of the ideas but also the tactics of the socialist Left. In making the moral case for entrepreneurs and the free market, the author portrays President Trump as the exemplar of capitalism and also the most effective political leader of the battle against socialism. He shows how we can help Trump defeat the socialist menace.


Pdf ebook: The Chapo Guide to Revolution

Pdf download ebook The Chapo Guide to Revolution

Summary: Instant New York Times bestseller “Howard Zinn on acid or some bullsh*t like that.” —Tim Heidecker The creators of the cult-hit podcast Chapo Trap Ho

  • Author : Chapo Trap House,Felix Biederman,Matt Christman,Brendan James,Will Menaker,Virgil Texas
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1501187309
  • Genre: Humor
  • Number of Pages: 320
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1415
  • Downloads: 1415
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Description: Instant New York Times bestseller “Howard Zinn on acid or some bullsh*t like that.” —Tim Heidecker The creators of the cult-hit podcast Chapo Trap House deliver a manifesto for everyone who feels orphaned and alienated—politically, culturally, and economically—by the lanyard-wearing Wall Street centrism of the left and the lizard-brained atavism of the right: there is a better way, the Chapo Way. In a guide that reads like “a weirder, smarter, and deliciously meaner version of The Daily Show’s 2004 America (The Book)” (Paste), Chapo Trap House shows you that you don’t have to side with either sinking ships. These self-described “assholes from the internet” offer a fully ironic ideology for all who feel politically hopeless and prefer broadsides and tirades to reasoned debate. Learn the “secret” history of the world, politics, media, and everything in-between that THEY don’t want you to know and chart a course from our wretched present to a utopian future where one can post in the morning, game in the afternoon, and podcast after dinner without ever becoming a poster, gamer, or podcaster. A book that’s “as intellectually serious and analytically original as it is irreverent and funny” (Glenn Greenwald, New York Times bestselling author of No Place to Hide) The Chapo Guide to Revolution features illustrated taxonomies of contemporary liberal and conservative characters, biographies of important thought leaders, “never before seen” drafts of Aaron Sorkin’s Newsroom manga, and the ten new laws that govern Chapo Year Zero (everyone gets a dog, billionaires are turned into Soylent, and logic is outlawed). If you’re a fan of sacred cows, prisoners being taken, and holds being barred, then this book is NOT for you. However, if you feel disenfranchised from the political and cultural nightmare we’re in, then Chapo, let’s go…


Pdf ebook: The Romance of American Communism

Pdf download ebook The Romance of American Communism

Summary: Writer and critic Vivian Gornick’s long-unavailable classic exploring how Left politics gave depth and meaning to American life “Before I knew that I w

  • Author : Vivian Gornick
  • Publisher: Verso Books
  • ISBN: 1788735528
  • Genre: Biography & Autobiography
  • Number of Pages: 288
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1122
  • Downloads: 1122
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Description: Writer and critic Vivian Gornick’s long-unavailable classic exploring how Left politics gave depth and meaning to American life “Before I knew that I was Jewish or a girl I knew that I was a member of the working class.” So begins Vivian Gornick’s exploration of how the world of socialists, communists, and progressives in the 1940s and 1950s created a rich, diverse world where ordinary men and women felt their lives connected to a larger human project. Now back in print after its initial publication in 1977 and with a new introduction by the author, The Romance of American Communism is a landmark work of new journalism, profiling American Communist Party members and fellow travelers as they joined the Party, lived within its orbit, and left in disillusionment and disappointment as Stalin’s crimes became public.


Pdf ebook: Renewing Socialism

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Summary: Renewing Socialism opens with an exploration of the contemporary meaning of revolution and reform, beginning by stressing the appropriation of both terms i

  • Author : Leo Panitch
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1000309657
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 248
  • Language: English
  • Views: 976
  • Downloads: 976
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Description: Renewing Socialism opens with an exploration of the contemporary meaning of revolution and reform, beginning by stressing the appropriation of both terms into the rhetoric of the political right. Panitch examines the failure to realize socialisms revolutionary promise through an analysis of social democratic parties and the politics of compromise t


Pdf ebook: Socialism Sucks

Pdf download ebook Socialism Sucks

Summary: The bastard step-child of Milton Friedman and Anthony Bourdain, Socialism Sucks is a bar-crawl through former, current, and wannabe socialist countries aro

  • Author : Robert Lawson,Benjamin Powell
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1621579468
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 224
  • Language: English
  • Views: 346
  • Downloads: 346
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Description: The bastard step-child of Milton Friedman and Anthony Bourdain, Socialism Sucks is a bar-crawl through former, current, and wannabe socialist countries around the world. Free market economists Robert Lawson and Benjamin Powell travel to countries like Venezuela, Cuba, Russia, and Sweden to investigate the dangers and idiocies of socialism—while drinking a lot of beer.


Pdf ebook: The Social Psychology of Groups

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Summary: This landmark theory of interpersonal relations and group functioning argues that the starting point for understanding social behavior is the analysis of d

  • Author : John W. Thibaut
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351473891
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Number of Pages: 339
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1837
  • Downloads: 1837
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Description: This landmark theory of interpersonal relations and group functioning argues that the starting point for understanding social behavior is the analysis of dyadic interdependence. Such an analysis portrays the ways in which the separate and joint actions of two persons affect the quality of their lives and the survival of their relationship. The authors focus on patterns of interdependence, and on the assumption that these patterns play an important causal role in the processes, roles, and norms of relationships. This powerful theory has many applications in all the social sciences, including the study of social and moral norms; close-pair relationships; conflicts of interest and cognitive disputes; social orientations; the social evolution of economic prosperity and leadership in groups; and personal relationships.


Pdf ebook: Theory of Socialism and Capitalism, A

Pdf download ebook Theory of Socialism and Capitalism, A

Summary:

  • Author : N.a
  • Publisher: Ludwig von Mises Institute
  • ISBN: 1610163214
  • Genre: Books
  • Number of Pages: N.A
  • Language: English
  • Views: 705
  • Downloads: 705
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Description:


Pdf ebook: Why Not Socialism?

Pdf download ebook Why Not Socialism?

Summary: Is socialism desirable? Is it even possible? In this concise book, one of the world's leading political philosophers presents with clarity and wit a compel

  • Author : G. A. Cohen
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9781400830633
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 96
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1913
  • Downloads: 1913
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Description: Is socialism desirable? Is it even possible? In this concise book, one of the world's leading political philosophers presents with clarity and wit a compelling moral case for socialism and argues that the obstacles in its way are exaggerated. There are times, G. A. Cohen notes, when we all behave like socialists. On a camping trip, for example, campers wouldn't dream of charging each other to use a soccer ball or for fish that they happened to catch. Campers do not give merely to get, but relate to each other in a spirit of equality and community. Would such socialist norms be desirable across society as a whole? Why not? Whole societies may differ from camping trips, but it is still attractive when people treat each other with the equal regard that such trips exhibit. But, however desirable it may be, many claim that socialism is impossible. Cohen writes that the biggest obstacle to socialism isn't, as often argued, intractable human selfishness--it's rather the lack of obvious means to harness the human generosity that is there. Lacking those means, we rely on the market. But there are many ways of confining the sway of the market: there are desirable changes that can move us toward a socialist society in which, to quote Albert Einstein, humanity has "overcome and advanced beyond the predatory stage of human development."


Pdf ebook: Why Not Capitalism?

Pdf download ebook Why Not Capitalism?

Summary: Most economists believe capitalism is a compromise with selfish human nature. As Adam Smith put it, "It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the bre

  • Author : Jason F. Brennan
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317907876
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 114
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1229
  • Downloads: 1229
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Description: Most economists believe capitalism is a compromise with selfish human nature. As Adam Smith put it, "It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest." Capitalism works better than socialism, according to this thinking, only because we are not kind and generous enough to make socialism work. If we were saints, we would be socialists. In Why Not Capitalism?, Jason Brennan attacks this widely held belief, arguing that capitalism would remain the best system even if we were morally perfect. Even in an ideal world, private property and free markets would be the best way to promote mutual cooperation, social justice, harmony, and prosperity. Socialists seek to capture the moral high ground by showing that ideal socialism is morally superior to realistic capitalism. But, Brennan responds, ideal capitalism is superior to ideal socialism, and so capitalism beats socialism at every level. Clearly, engagingly, and at times provocatively written, Why Not Capitalism? will cause readers of all political persuasions to re-evaluate where they stand vis-à-vis economic priorities and systems—as they exist now and as they might be improved in the future.


Pdf ebook: American Marxism

Pdf download ebook American Marxism

Summary: #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER The seven-time #1 New York Times bestselling author, Fox News star, and radio host Mark R. Levin explains how the dangers he w

  • Author : Mark R. Levin
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1501136011
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 320
  • Language: English
  • Views: 990
  • Downloads: 990
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Description: #1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER The seven-time #1 New York Times bestselling author, Fox News star, and radio host Mark R. Levin explains how the dangers he warned against in the “timely yet timeless” (David Limbaugh, author of Jesus Is Risen) bestseller Liberty and Tyranny have come to pass. In 2009, Mark R. Levin galvanized conservatives with his unforgettable manifesto Liberty and Tyranny, by providing a philosophical, historical, and practical framework for halting the liberal assault on Constitution-based values. That book was about standing at the precipice of progressivism’s threat to our freedom and now, over a decade later, we’re fully over that precipice and paying the price. In American Marxism, Levin explains how the core elements of Marxist ideology are now pervasive in American society and culture—from our schools, the press, and corporations, to Hollywood, the Democratic Party, and the Biden presidency—and how it is often cloaked in deceptive labels like “progressivism,” “democratic socialism,” “social activism,” and more. With his characteristic trenchant analysis, Levin digs into the psychology and tactics of these movements, the widespread brainwashing of students, the anti-American purposes of Critical Race Theory and the Green New Deal, and the escalation of repression and censorship to silence opposing voices and enforce conformity. Levin exposes many of the institutions, intellectuals, scholars, and activists who are leading this revolution, and provides us with some answers and ideas on how to confront them. As Levin writes: “The counter-revolution to the American Revolution is in full force. And it can no longer be dismissed or ignored for it is devouring our society and culture, swirling around our everyday lives, and ubiquitous in our politics, schools, media, and entertainment.” And, like before, Levin seeks to rally the American people to defend their liberty.


Pdf ebook: Socialism 101

Pdf download ebook Socialism 101

Summary: Socialism 101 is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the historical and modern applications of socialism. In today’s political climate, more and more

  • Author : Kathleen Sears
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1507211376
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1463
  • Downloads: 1463
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Description: Socialism 101 is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the historical and modern applications of socialism. In today’s political climate, more and more presidential candidates are espousing socialist—or democratic socialist—policies. Once associated with oppression, socialism is now a current topic of conversation with everyday Americans, including policies like taxing the rich and healthcare for all. But what exactly is socialism and why does it spark such an intense debate? Socialism 101 provides an easy-to-understand, unbiased overview to the nearly 300-year-old origins of this mode of government, its complex history, basic constructs, modern-day interpretations, key figures in its development, and up-to-date concepts and policies in today’s world. As capitalism has become less appealing and socialism experiences a surge in popularity, the need for clarification of what it means has never been more necessary than now.


Pdf ebook: Capital and Ideology

Pdf download ebook Capital and Ideology

Summary: The epic successor to one of the most important books of the century: at once a retelling of global history, a scathing critique of contemporary politics,

  • Author : Thomas Piketty
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 0674245083
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Number of Pages: 976
  • Language: English
  • Views: 901
  • Downloads: 901
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Description: The epic successor to one of the most important books of the century: at once a retelling of global history, a scathing critique of contemporary politics, and a bold proposal for a new and fairer economic system. Thomas Piketty’s bestselling Capital in the Twenty-First Century galvanized global debate about inequality. In this audacious follow-up, Piketty challenges us to revolutionize how we think about politics, ideology, and history. He exposes the ideas that have sustained inequality for the past millennium, reveals why the shallow politics of right and left are failing us today, and outlines the structure of a fairer economic system. Our economy, Piketty observes, is not a natural fact. Markets, profits, and capital are all historical constructs that depend on choices. Piketty explores the material and ideological interactions of conflicting social groups that have given us slavery, serfdom, colonialism, communism, and hypercapitalism, shaping the lives of billions. He concludes that the great driver of human progress over the centuries has been the struggle for equality and education and not, as often argued, the assertion of property rights or the pursuit of stability. The new era of extreme inequality that has derailed that progress since the 1980s, he shows, is partly a reaction against communism, but it is also the fruit of ignorance, intellectual specialization, and our drift toward the dead-end politics of identity. Once we understand this, we can begin to envision a more balanced approach to economics and politics. Piketty argues for a new “participatory” socialism, a system founded on an ideology of equality, social property, education, and the sharing of knowledge and power. Capital and Ideology is destined to be one of the indispensable books of our time, a work that will not only help us understand the world, but that will change it.


Pdf ebook: Futures of Socialism

Pdf download ebook Futures of Socialism

Summary: How should the left respond to electoral defeat, the leadership of Keir Starmer and a global crisis? British politics is in an extraordinary place. Grace B

  • Author : Grace Blakeley
  • Publisher: Verso Books
  • ISBN: 1839761342
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 272
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1559
  • Downloads: 1559
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Description: How should the left respond to electoral defeat, the leadership of Keir Starmer and a global crisis? British politics is in an extraordinary place. Grace Blakeley introduces an indispensable collection of analysis and comment. In Futures of Socialism, Sam Gindin and James Meadway reassess socialist strategy after the coronavirus; Dalia Gebrial and Siân Errington debate austerity and precarity; Joshua Virasami and Simukai Chigudu explore anti-racism and the legacy of Empire; and Leo Panitch and Momentum co-founder James Schneider probe the limits of parliamentary socialism. Chris Saltmarsh assesses the prospects for an eco-socialist Green New Deal and Cat Hobbs argues for the ongoing centrality of public ownership to socialist policy. Futures of Socialism takes an in-depth look at the reasons for Labour’s 2019 election defeat, with Unite’s Andrew Murray on Labour’s Brexit position, Tom Mills on the British media, Gargi Bhattacharyya and Jeremy Gilbert on better ways to build a political project, and Keir Milburn on generation left. The anthology also compares the fortunes of the British left with socialist movements overseas, in despatches from Europe and America. Blakeley draws on the talents of all sections of the post-Corbyn left to survey the prospects of “a movement that has dominated the horizons of our lives.”


Pdf ebook: A History of British Socialism

Pdf download ebook A History of British Socialism

Summary: This is volume 2 of the set A History of British Socialism. These volumes study the political thought experienced as a result of the massive transition of

  • Author : Max Beer
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136448772
  • Genre: History
  • Number of Pages: 464
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1689
  • Downloads: 1689
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Description: This is volume 2 of the set A History of British Socialism. These volumes study the political thought experienced as a result of the massive transition of the British countryside to capitalist agriculture and capitalist industry.


Pdf ebook: The Psychology of Politics

Pdf download ebook The Psychology of Politics

Summary: The Psychology of Politics is an introduction to political psychology. The field has a long past, but as an organized discipline, it has a short history. T

  • Author : William F. Stone,Paul E. Schaffner
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1461238307
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Number of Pages: 331
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1026
  • Downloads: 1026
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Description: The Psychology of Politics is an introduction to political psychology. The field has a long past, but as an organized discipline, it has a short history. The long past is detailed in Jaap van Ginneken's historical first chapter of the book. The short history of political psychology as an organized disci pline dates from 1978, when the International Society of Political Psychol ogy (ISPP) was founded (Stone, 1981, 1988). The formal establishment of an interdiscipline drawing upon various social sciences had numerous predecessors in the 20th century: Wallas's (1908) Human Nature in Politics, Harold Lasswell's Psychopathology and Politics in 1930, a book with the present title by Eysenck (1954), and The Handbook of Political Psychology, edited by the founder of the ISPP, Jeanne Knutson. Her Handbook defined the field at the time of its publication in 1973 (see espe cially Davies' chapter). The present revision of Stone's (1974) work is more modest in its aspira tions. It provides a selective introduction to the field, emphasizing topics that the authors believe to be representative and important. Many psycho logically relevant topics, such as political socialization, participation, voting behavior, and leadership, are not represented among our chapter titles.


Pdf ebook: The Road to Wigan Pier

Pdf download ebook The Road to Wigan Pier

Summary: The Road to Wigan Pier is a book in two parts: the first half is Orwell’s description of working-class life in industrial communities of the north of Eng

  • Author : George Orwell
  • Publisher: Pan Macmillan
  • ISBN: 1529038251
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: N.A
  • Language: English
  • Views: 748
  • Downloads: 748
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Description: The Road to Wigan Pier is a book in two parts: the first half is Orwell’s description of working-class life in industrial communities of the north of England, the second examines his own political views. Part of the Macmillan Collector’s Library; a series of stunning, clothbound, pocket-sized classics with gold foiled edges and ribbon markers. These beautiful books make perfect gifts or a treat for any book lover. This edition is introduced by journalist and author Amelia Gentleman. The Road to Wigan Pier is an insightful and powerful account of lives lived in poverty and deprivation in a time of low wages and meagre government support. Orwell describes dismal housing (including the lodging house where he stays), harsh working conditions and the devastating effects of unemployment. And he also vividly describes the courage and dignity of the people he meets. In the second half of the book, Orwell examines his own political and social affiliations with an impressive ability to provoke and to question. He defends middle-class values whilst critiquing the failures of his own class, he advocates socialism whilst criticizing the socialist movement in England.


Pdf ebook: Stalin's Russia

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Summary: First published in 1940, Stalin’s Russia is a close study of the development of the Stalinist regime and the flaws in socialist doctrine that made it pos

  • Author : Max Eastman
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1000370569
  • Genre: History
  • Number of Pages: 276
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1651
  • Downloads: 1651
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Description: First published in 1940, Stalin’s Russia is a close study of the development of the Stalinist regime and the flaws in socialist doctrine that made it possible. The book examines the contrasts between the "free and equal" society heralded by the Marxist-Leninist programme and the totalitarian state that emerged in its place. It makes use of a wealth of material to cast light on the inner workings of Stalin’s regime. It explores the significance of the Stalin-Hitler pact, and argues that the word "socialism" itself became a liability to any genuine movement of liberation as a result.


Pdf ebook: 12 Rules for Life

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Summary: #1 NATIONAL BESTSELLER #1 INTERNATIONAL BESTSELLER What does everyone in the modern world need to know? Renowned psychologist Jordan B. Peterson's answer t

  • Author : Jordan B. Peterson
  • Publisher: Random House Canada
  • ISBN: 0345816048
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Number of Pages: 320
  • Language: English
  • Views: 363
  • Downloads: 363
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Description: #1 NATIONAL BESTSELLER #1 INTERNATIONAL BESTSELLER What does everyone in the modern world need to know? Renowned psychologist Jordan B. Peterson's answer to this most difficult of questions uniquely combines the hard-won truths of ancient tradition with the stunning revelations of cutting-edge scientific research. Humorous, surprising and informative, Dr. Peterson tells us why skateboarding boys and girls must be left alone, what terrible fate awaits those who criticize too easily, and why you should always pet a cat when you meet one on the street. What does the nervous system of the lowly lobster have to tell us about standing up straight (with our shoulders back) and about success in life? Why did ancient Egyptians worship the capacity to pay careful attention as the highest of gods? What dreadful paths do people tread when they become resentful, arrogant and vengeful? Dr. Peterson journeys broadly, discussing discipline, freedom, adventure and responsibility, distilling the world's wisdom into 12 practical and profound rules for life. 12 Rules for Life shatters the modern commonplaces of science, faith and human nature, while transforming and ennobling the mind and spirit of its readers.


Pdf ebook: From Socialist to Post-Socialist Cities

Pdf download ebook From Socialist to Post-Socialist Cities

Summary: The development of post-socialist cities has become a major field of study among critical theorists from across the social sciences and humanities. Origina

  • Author : Alexander C. Diener,Joshua Hagen
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317585887
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 208
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1661
  • Downloads: 1661
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Description: The development of post-socialist cities has become a major field of study among critical theorists from across the social sciences and humanities. Originally constructed under the dictates of central planners and designed to serve the demands of command economies, post-socialist urban centers currently develop at the nexus of varied and often competing economic, cultural, and political forces. Among these, nationalist aspirations, previously simmering beneath the official rhetoric of communist fraternity and veneer of architectural conformity, have emerged as dominant factors shaping the urban landscape. This book explores this burgeoning field of research through detailed cases studies relating to the cultural politics of architecture, urban planning, and identity in the post-socialist cities of Eurasia. This book was published as a special issue of Nationalities Papers.


Pdf ebook: Socialism the Active Utopia (Routledge Revivals)

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Summary: Rather than contributing to the long-standing discussion about the characteristics of the society that socialism proposes to establish, this Routledge Revi

  • Author : Zygmunt Bauman
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136999493
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 154
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1459
  • Downloads: 1459
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Description: Rather than contributing to the long-standing discussion about the characteristics of the society that socialism proposes to establish, this Routledge Revival, initially published in 1976, aims to explore the impact of the ‘living utopia’ of socialism on the development of modern society. It begins with an analysis of the role of utopia in general, and of the socialist utopia in particular; Bauman considers the opposition between ‘utopian’ and ‘scientific’ social thought; He presents socialism as the ‘counter-culture’ of capitalist society; The book finally examines the reasons for the failure of socialism in its application to the peasant revolution in Russia. It then explores some possible forms that the socialist utopia might take in the industrial societies of the late twentieth century. Professor Bauman writes for those who want to understand the logic of the historical fate of socialism in the present century, who are concerned about the validity and vitality of socialist ideas on the development of modern society, and who are interested, and perhaps confused, by the cultural and ideological conflicts of the last few decades.


Pdf ebook: The Shock Doctrine

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Summary: The shock doctrine is the unofficial story of how the "free market" came to dominate the world, from Chile to Russia, China to Iraq, South Africa to Canada

  • Author : Naomi Klein
  • Publisher: Vintage Canada
  • ISBN: 0307371301
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 672
  • Language: English
  • Views: 561
  • Downloads: 561
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Description: The shock doctrine is the unofficial story of how the "free market" came to dominate the world, from Chile to Russia, China to Iraq, South Africa to Canada. But it is a story radically different from the one usually told. It is a story about violence and shock perpetrated on people, on countries, on economies. About a program of social and economic engineering that Naomi Klein calls "disaster capitalism." Based on breakthrough historical research and 4 years of reporting in disaster zones, Klein explodes the myth that the global free market triumphed democratically, and that unfettered capitalism goes hand-in-hand with democracy. Instead, she argues it has consistently relied on violence and shock, and reveals the puppet strings behind the critical events of the last 40 years. "The shock doctrine" is the influential but little understood theory that in order to push through profoundly unpopular policies that enrich the few and impoverish the many, there must be a collective crisis or disaster—real or manufactured. Klein vividly traces the origins of modern shock tactics to the economic lab of the University of Chicago under Milton Friedman in the 60s, and beyond to the CIA-funded electroshock experiments at McGill in the 50s which helped write the torture manuals used today at Guantanamo Bay. She details the events of the recent past that have been deliberate theatres for the shock doctrine: among them, Pinochet’s coup in Chile in 1973, the Tiananmen Square Massacre in 1989, the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991; and, more recently, the September 11 attacks, the invasion of Iraq, the Asian tsunami and Hurricane Katrina. And she shows how—in the hands of the Bush Administration—the "war on terror" is a thin cover for a thriving destruction/reconstruction complex, with disasters, wars and homeland security fuelling a booming new economy. Naomi Klein has once again written a book that will change the way we see the world.


Pdf ebook: The Mass Psychology of Fascism

Pdf download ebook The Mass Psychology of Fascism

Summary: In this classic study, Reich provides insight into the phenomenon of fascism, which continues to ravage the international community in ways great and small

  • Author : Wilhelm Reich
  • Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
  • ISBN: 146684695X
  • Genre: Psychology
  • Number of Pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1395
  • Downloads: 1395
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Description: In this classic study, Reich provides insight into the phenomenon of fascism, which continues to ravage the international community in ways great and small. Drawing on his medical experiences with men and women of various classes, races, nations, and religious beliefs, Reich refutes the still generally held notion that fascism is a specific characteristic of certain nationalities or a political party ideology that is imposed on innocent people by means of force or political maneuvers. "Fascism on only the organized political expression of the structure of the average man's character. It is the basic emotional civilization and its mechanistic-mystical conception of life."—Wilhelm Reich Responsibility for the elimination of fascism thus results with the masses of average people who might otherwise support and champion it.