Pdf ebook: The Problems of Philosophy

Pdf download ebook The Problems of Philosophy

Summary: 'Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it?' Philosophy is the attempt to answer such ultimate question

  • Author : N.a
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191500763
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 128
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1576
  • Downloads: 1576
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Description: 'Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it?' Philosophy is the attempt to answer such ultimate questions, not carelessly and dogmatically, as we might deal with them in ordinary life, but critically, after analysing how and why the questions arise and clarifying the assumptions and concepts on which they are based. This classic work, first published in 1912, has never been supplanted as an approachable introduction to the theory of philosophical enquiry. It gives Russell's views on such subjects as the distinction between appearance and reality, the existence and nature of matter, idealism, knowledge by acquaintance and by description, induction, and the limits and value of philosophical knowledge. This edition includes an introduction by John Skorupski contextualizing Russell's work, and a guide to further reading.


Pdf ebook: The Problems of Philosophy

Pdf download ebook The Problems of Philosophy

Summary: Appearance And Reality - The Existence Of Matter - The Nature Of Matter - Idealism - Knowledge By Acquaintance And Knowledge By Description - On Induction

  • Author : Bertrand Russell
  • Publisher: Prabhat Prakashan
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: N.A
  • Language: English
  • Views: 548
  • Downloads: 548
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Description: Appearance And Reality - The Existence Of Matter - The Nature Of Matter - Idealism - Knowledge By Acquaintance And Knowledge By Description - On Induction - On Our Knowledge Of General Principles - How A Priori Knowledge Is Possible - The World Of Universals - On Our Knowledge Of Universals - On Intuitive Knowledge - Truth And Falsehood - Knowledge, Error, And Probable Opinion - The Limits Of Philosophical Knowledge - The Value Of Philosophy - Bibliographical Note


Pdf ebook: Reality+: Virtual Worlds and the Problems of Philosophy

Pdf download ebook Reality+: Virtual Worlds and the Problems of Philosophy

Summary: A leading philosopher takes a mind-bending journey through virtual worlds, illuminating the nature of reality and our place within it. Virtual reality is g

  • Author : David J. Chalmers
  • Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
  • ISBN: 0393635813
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 528
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1656
  • Downloads: 1656
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Description: A leading philosopher takes a mind-bending journey through virtual worlds, illuminating the nature of reality and our place within it. Virtual reality is genuine reality. That’s the central thesis of Reality+. In a highly original work of “technophilosophy,” David J. Chalmers argues that virtual worlds generated by computers are not second-class worlds. We can live a meaningful life in virtual reality. We may even be living in a computer simulation already—and if we are, that’s not so bad. What is reality, anyway? How do we know there’s an external world? What’s the relation between mind and body? How can we lead a good life? Is there a god? In Reality+, Chalmers conducts a grand tour of philosophy, using virtual worlds to illuminate all of these questions and to provide new answers to many of them. Studded with illustrations that bring philosophical issues to life, Reality+ is a major statement that will shape discussion of philosophy and technology for years to come.


Pdf ebook: The Problems of Contemporary Philosophy

Pdf download ebook The Problems of Contemporary Philosophy

Summary: This accessible new book provides a clear and wide-ranging introduction to the defining problems of contemporary philosophy. Its unique feature is to focus

  • Author : Paul Livingston,Andrew Cutrofello
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1509501444
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 224
  • Language: English
  • Views: 757
  • Downloads: 757
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Description: This accessible new book provides a clear and wide-ranging introduction to the defining problems of contemporary philosophy. Its unique feature is to focus on problems that cut across the established divide between analytic and continental philosophical traditions. Instead of segregating the two traditions, as is usually done, the authors offer a critical orientation and guide for readers who are not exclusively affiliated with either approach and who want to understand the increasingly shared questions philosophers are asking and addressing today. Each chapter starts with a fundamental overarching question: (1) What and how can we know? (2) What is the structure of the world? (3) What goes beyond the physical world? (4) What is to be done? (5) What does it mean to orient oneself philosophically? Under these headings, the authors critically examine the discipline's most fundamental problems. Their approach reveals deep and unexpected connections across the analytic/continental divide, and opens up new ways of thinking about critique itself. No other book about contemporary philosophy is as comprehensive and cosmopolitan. The Problems of Contemporary Philosophy provides newcomers and seasoned philosophers alike with an entertaining, engaging, and far-reaching portrait of today's philosophical landscape. It is an exemplary instance of thinking across and beyond the analytic/continental divide.


Pdf ebook: Plato Etc

Pdf download ebook Plato Etc

Summary: In this concise text, Roy Bhaskar sets out to diagnose, explain and resolve the "problems of philosophy". Plato Etc. reviews all the main areas of the subj

  • Author : Roy Bhaskar
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135280991
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 267
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1257
  • Downloads: 1257
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Description: In this concise text, Roy Bhaskar sets out to diagnose, explain and resolve the "problems of philosophy". Plato Etc. reviews all the main areas of the subject: the theory of knowledge and philosophy of science; the philosophy of logic and language; the philosophies of space, time and causality; the philosophy of the social and life sciences and of dialectic; ethics, politics and aesthetics; and the history and sociology of philosophy. Among the issues discussed are the problems of induction and universals, the question of relativism, Heidegger’s "scandal of philosophy" (the search for a proof of the reality of the external world), the nature of moral truth and the conundrum of free will and determinism. The last two chapters consist of a synoptic account of the development of Western philosophy from the pre-Socratics to poststructuralism. Plato Etc. seeks to revindicate the philosophical project, and to demonstrate that the author’s "dialectical critical realism" has the categorical power to remedy the problem fields of philosophy. The book serves both as a critical introduction to philosophy and as an invaluable resource for the scholar.


Pdf ebook: The Nature of Philosophical Problems

Pdf download ebook The Nature of Philosophical Problems

Summary: We must all make choices about how we want to live. We evaluate our possibilities by relying on historical, moral, personal, political, religious, and scie

  • Author : John Kekes
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191040908
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1532
  • Downloads: 1532
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Description: We must all make choices about how we want to live. We evaluate our possibilities by relying on historical, moral, personal, political, religious, and scientific modes of evaluations, but the values and reasons that follow from them conflict. Philosophical problems are forced on us when we try to cope with such conflicts. There are reasons for and against all proposed ways of coping with the conflicts, but none of them has been generally accepted by reasonable thinkers. The constructive aim of The Nature of Philosophical Problems is to propose a way of understanding the nature of such philosophical problems, explain why they occur, why they are perennial, and propose a pluralist approach as the most reasonable way of coping with them. This approach is practical, context-dependent, and particular. It follows from it that the recurrence of philosophical problems is not a defect, but a welcome consequence of the richness of our modes of understanding that enlarges the range of possibilities by which we might choose to live. The critical aim of the book is to give reasons against both the absolutist attempt to find an overriding value or principle for resolving philosophical problems and of the relativist claim that reasons unavoidably come to an end and how we want to live is ultimately a matter of personal preference, not of reasons.


Pdf ebook: History of Western Philosophy

Pdf download ebook History of Western Philosophy

Summary: First published in 1946, History of Western Philosophy went on to become the best-selling philosophy book of the twentieth century. A dazzlingly ambitious

  • Author : Bertrand Russell
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134343663
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 792
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1165
  • Downloads: 1165
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Description: First published in 1946, History of Western Philosophy went on to become the best-selling philosophy book of the twentieth century. A dazzlingly ambitious project, it remains unchallenged to this day as the ultimate introduction to Western philosophy. Providing a sophisticated overview of the ideas that have perplexed people from time immemorial, it is 'long on wit, intelligence and curmudgeonly scepticism', as the New York Times noted, and it is this, coupled with the sheer brilliance of its scholarship, that has made Russell's History of Western Philosophy one of the most important philosophical works of all time.


Pdf ebook: The Problem of China

Pdf download ebook The Problem of China

Summary: A detailed study of China's economic, political and cultural history, renowned philosopher and scholar Bertrand Russell's book 'The Problem of China' can b

  • Author : Bertrand Russell
  • Publisher: Prabhat Prakashan
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: History
  • Number of Pages: N.A
  • Language: English
  • Views: 643
  • Downloads: 643
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Description: A detailed study of China's economic, political and cultural history, renowned philosopher and scholar Bertrand Russell's book 'The Problem of China' can be read by social sciences scholars and economists interested in studying this region of diverse continent Asia.


Pdf ebook: Justice in War-time

Pdf download ebook Justice in War-time

Summary: Justice in War-time, first published in 1916, is a collection of Bertrand Russell's essays on war. He claims that humans have an instinct toward war, but t

  • Author : Bertrand Russell
  • Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.
  • ISBN: 1605200212
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 252
  • Language: English
  • Views: 524
  • Downloads: 524
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Description: Justice in War-time, first published in 1916, is a collection of Bertrand Russell's essays on war. He claims that humans have an instinct toward war, but that this instinct needs to be sufficiently roused in order to spark conflict. He analyzes British foreign policy during the ten years before the First World War in an effort to discover how England may have contributed to the problem. The essays included in this volume are: . "An Appeal to the Intellectuals of Europe" . "The Ethics of War" . "War and Non-Resistance" . "Why Nations Love War" . "The Future of Anglo-German Rivalry" . "Is Permanent Peace Possible?" . "The Danger to Civilization" . "The Entente Policy, 1904-1915. A Reply to Professor Gilbert Murray" British philosopher and mathematician BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL (1872-1970) won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950. Among his many works are Why I Am Not a Christian (1927), Power: A New Social Analysis (1938), and My Philosophical Development (1959).


Pdf ebook: The Big Questions

Pdf download ebook The Big Questions

Summary: In the wake of his enormously popular books The Armchair Economist and More Sex Is Safer Sex, Steven Landsburg uses concepts from mathematics, economics, a

  • Author : Steven E. Landsburg
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 9781439153598
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 288
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1161
  • Downloads: 1161
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Description: In the wake of his enormously popular books The Armchair Economist and More Sex Is Safer Sex, Steven Landsburg uses concepts from mathematics, economics, and physics to address the big questions in philosophy: What is real? What can we know? What is the difference between right and wrong? And how should we live? Widely renowned for his lively explorations of economics, in his fourth book Landsburg branches out into mathematics and physics as well—disciplines that, like economics, the author loves for their beauty, their logical clarity, and their profound and indisputable truth—to take us on a provocative and utterly entertaining journey through the questions that have preoccupied philosophers through the ages. The author begins with the broadest possible categories—Reality and Unreality; Knowledge and Belief; Right and Wrong—and then focuses his exploration on specific concerns: from a mathematical analysis of the arguments for the existence of God; to the real meaning of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and the Godel Incompleteness Theorem; to the moral choices we face in the marketplace and the voting booth. Stimulating, illuminating, and always surprising, The Big Questions challenges readers to re-evaluate their most fundamental beliefs and reveals the relationship between the loftiest philosophical quests and our everyday lives.


Pdf ebook: The Existence of the World

Pdf download ebook The Existence of the World

Summary: Originally published in 1992. The history of Western philosophy can be seen as a battle between those that insist that the "physical universe" exists and t

  • Author : Reinhardt Grossmann
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 0429514182
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 146
  • Language: English
  • Views: 898
  • Downloads: 898
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Description: Originally published in 1992. The history of Western philosophy can be seen as a battle between those that insist that the "physical universe" exists and those would claim that there is a much larger "world" which contains atemporal and nonspatial things as well. The central part of this book, and the battle, concerns the existence of universals. Starting with the mediaeval definition of the issue found in Porphry and Boethius, the author then considers modern and contemporary versions of the battle. He concludes that what is at stake between naturalists and ontologists is the existence and nature of a number of important categories, like structures, relations, sets, numbers and so on.


Pdf ebook: Some Main Problems of Philosophy

Pdf download ebook Some Main Problems of Philosophy

Summary: First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

  • Author : Moore, George Edward
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317853164
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 400
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1033
  • Downloads: 1033
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Description: First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.


Pdf ebook: Hard Questions

Pdf download ebook Hard Questions

Summary: In this book, John Kekes discusses the hard questions we all must face in the course of our lives. Is there an absolute value that overrides all other cons

  • Author : John Kekes
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0190920009
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 272
  • Language: English
  • Views: 578
  • Downloads: 578
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Description: In this book, John Kekes discusses the hard questions we all must face in the course of our lives. Is there an absolute value that overrides all other considerations? Must we conform to prevailing conventions? Do we owe what our country asks of us? Must justice be done at all costs? How should we respond to evil? Should we forgive wrong actions? Does shame make life better or worse? Is it always good to be true to who we are? Do good intentions justify bad actions? Are moral values the highest of all values? There are reasonable answers to these questions, but we find that they often conflict. Their conflicts compel us to weigh the consequences of how the decisions we make affect ourselves, our relationships, and our attitude to the society in which we live. In this clearly and accessibly written book, Kekes compares and evaluates the reasons that have been given for and against answers to these hard questions by those who actually faced them. By learning from the successes and failures of the decisions others have made, we can understand better how we should respond to the hard questions we ourselves face. We can then evaluate more reasonably the possibilities open to us and the limitations to which we are subject. This approach is an alternative to both the absolutist and the relativist ways of trying to answer hard questions. Absolutists have, for millennia, fruitlessly searched for an authoritative answer that reason requires everyone to accept. Their failure have led relativists to assume that there comes a point at which we run out of reasons and have no option but to make an arbitrary decision. Kekes instead offers a message of hope by showing that there are reasonable answers to hard questions, which are neither absolute, nor arbitrary.


Pdf ebook: Problems of Men

Pdf download ebook Problems of Men

Summary: Although primarily addressed to the general reader, the introduction and the last chapters of this work strike straight at reactionary philosophers who obs

  • Author : John Dewey
  • Publisher: Open Road Media
  • ISBN: 1497675928
  • Genre: Education
  • Number of Pages: 324
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1468
  • Downloads: 1468
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Description: Although primarily addressed to the general reader, the introduction and the last chapters of this work strike straight at reactionary philosophers who obstruct the philosophers who are honest searchers for wisdom.


Pdf ebook: The Metaphysics of Identity

Pdf download ebook The Metaphysics of Identity

Summary: The philosophical problem of identity and the related problem of change go back to the ancient Greek philosophers and fascinated later figures including Le

  • Author : André Gallois
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135015678
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 216
  • Language: English
  • Views: 740
  • Downloads: 740
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Description: The philosophical problem of identity and the related problem of change go back to the ancient Greek philosophers and fascinated later figures including Leibniz, Locke, and Hume. Heraclitus argued that one could not swim in the same river twice because new waters were ever flowing in. When is a river not the same river? If one removes one plank at a time when is a ship no longer a ship? What is the basic nature of identity and persistence? In this book, André Gallois introduces and assesses the philosophical puzzles posed by things persisting through time. Beginning with essential historical background to the problem he explores the following key topics and debates: mereology and identity, including arguments from 'Leibniz's Law' the constitution view of identity the 'relative identity' argument concerning identity temporary identity four-dimensionalism, counterpart and multiple counterpart theory supervenience the problem of temporary intrinsics the necessity of identity Indeterminate identity presentism criteria of identity conventionalism about identity. Including chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary, this book is essential reading for anyone seeking a clear and informative introduction to and assessment of the metaphysics of identity.


Pdf ebook: The Natural Problem of Consciousness

Pdf download ebook The Natural Problem of Consciousness

Summary: The “Natural Problem of Consciousness” is the problem of understanding why there are presently conscious beings at all. Given a non-reductive naturalis

  • Author : Pietro Snider
  • Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • ISBN: 3110524694
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 257
  • Language: English
  • Views: 494
  • Downloads: 494
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Description: The “Natural Problem of Consciousness” is the problem of understanding why there are presently conscious beings at all. Given a non-reductive naturalist framework taking consciousness as an ontologically subjective biological phenomenon, how can we rationally explain the fact that the actual world has turned out to be one where there are presently living beings that can feel, rather than having developed as a zombie-world in which there would be no conscious experiences of any kind? This book introduces the Natural Problem by relating it to central problems in the philosophy of mind (metaphysical mind-body problem, Hard Problem of consciousness) and emphasizing the distinctive interest of its diachronic dimension. Ranging from philosophy to biology and neuroscience, it offers a thorough analysis aimed at better understanding what could explain why phenomenal consciousness has been preserved throughout evolution by natural selection. This is an original, engaging, and thought provoking philosophical study of a neglected but fundamental question regarding the nature and origin of consciousness.


Pdf ebook: Problems of Living

Pdf download ebook Problems of Living

Summary: Problems of Living: Perspectives from Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Cognitive-Affective Science addresses philosophical questions related to problems of livi

  • Author : Dan J. Stein
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0323904394
  • Genre: Medical
  • Number of Pages: 326
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1679
  • Downloads: 1679
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Description: Problems of Living: Perspectives from Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Cognitive-Affective Science addresses philosophical questions related to problems of living, including questions about the nature of the brain-mind, reason and emotion, happiness and suffering, goodness and truth, and the meaning of life. It draws on critical, pragmatic, and embodied realism as well as moral naturalism, and brings arguments from metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics together with data from cognitive-affective science. This multidisciplinary integrated approach provides a novel framework for considering not only the nature of mental disorders, but also broader issues in mental health, such as finding pleasure and purpose in life. Draws on the strongest aspects of polar positions in philosophy and psychiatry to help resolve important perennial debates in these fields Explores continuities between early philosophical work and current cognitive-affective sciences, including neuroscience and psychology Employs findings from modern cognitive-affective science to rethink key long-standing debates in philosophy and psychiatry Builds on work showing how mind is embodied in the brain, and embedded in society, to provide an integrated conceptual framework Assesses both the insights and the limitations of cognitive-affective science for addressing the big questions and hard problems of living


Pdf ebook: Early Analytic Philosophy - New Perspectives on the Tradition

Pdf download ebook Early Analytic Philosophy - New Perspectives on the Tradition

Summary: This volume discusses some crucial ideas of the founders of the analytic philosophy: Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein, or the ‘gol

  • Author : Sorin Costreie
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319242148
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 455
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1502
  • Downloads: 1502
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Description: This volume discusses some crucial ideas of the founders of the analytic philosophy: Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein, or the ‘golden trio’. The book shows how these ‘old’ ideas are still present and influential in the current philosophical debates and to what extent these debates echo the original ideas. The collection aim is twofold: to better understand these fruitful ideas by placing them in the original setting, and to systematically examine these ideas in the context of the current debates animating philosophical discussions today. Divided into five sections, the book first sets the stage and offers a general introduction to the background influences, as well as delimitations of the initial foundational positions. This first section contains two papers dedicated to the discussion of realism and the status of science at that time, followed by two papers that tackle the epistemic status of logical laws. The next three sections constitute the core of the volume, each being dedicated to the most important figures in the early analytic tradition: Frege, Russell, and Wittgenstein. The last section gathers several essays that discuss either the relation between two or more analytic thinkers, or various important concepts such as ‘predicativism’ and ‘arbitrary function’, or the principles of abstraction and non-contradiction.​


Pdf ebook: The Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge

Pdf download ebook The Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge

Summary: In a letter of 1932, Karl Popper described Die beiden Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie – The Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge – a

  • Author : Karl Popper
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135626839
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1865
  • Downloads: 1865
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Description: In a letter of 1932, Karl Popper described Die beiden Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie – The Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge – as ‘...a child of crises, above all of ...the crisis of physics.’ Finally available in English, it is a major contribution to the philosophy of science, epistemology and twentieth century philosophy generally. The two fundamental problems of knowledge that lie at the centre of the book are the problem of induction, that although we are able to observe only a limited number of particular events, science nevertheless advances unrestricted universal statements; and the problem of demarcation, which asks for a separating line between empirical science and non-science. Popper seeks to solve these two basic problems with his celebrated theory of falsifiability, arguing that the inferences made in science are not inductive but deductive; science does not start with observations and proceed to generalise them but with problems, which it attacks with bold conjectures. The Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge is essential reading for anyone interested in Karl Popper, in the history and philosophy of science, and in the methods and theories of science itself.


Pdf ebook: Basic Critical Theory for Photographers

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Summary: Basic Critical Theory for Photographers generates discussion, thought and practical assignments around key debates in photography. Ashley la Grange avoids

  • Author : Ashley la Grange
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • ISBN: 1136090134
  • Genre: Photography
  • Number of Pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Views: 822
  • Downloads: 822
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Description: Basic Critical Theory for Photographers generates discussion, thought and practical assignments around key debates in photography. Ashley la Grange avoids the trap of an elitist and purely academic approach to critical theory, taking a dual theoretical and practical approach when considering the issues. Key critical theory texts (such as Sontag's 'On Photography' and Barthes' 'Camera Lucida') are clarified and shortened. La Grange avoids editorilising, letting the arguments develop as the writers had intended; it is the assignments which call into question each writer's approach and promote debate. This is the ideal book if you want to understand key debates in photography and have a ready-made structure within which to discuss and explore these fascinating issues. It is accessible to students, from high school to university level, but will also be of interest to the general reader and to those photographers whose training and work is concerned with the practical aspects of photography. Also includes invaluable glossary of terms and a substantial index that incorporates the classic texts, helping you to navigate your way through these un-indexed works. The book also contains useful information on photo-mechanical processes, explaining how a photograph can appear very differently, and as a result be interpreted in a range of ways, in a variety of books.


Pdf ebook: Think

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Summary: This is a book about the big questions in life: knowledge, consciousness, fate, God, truth, goodness, justice. It is for anyone who believes there are big

  • Author : Simon Blackburn
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0199769842
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 320
  • Language: English
  • Views: 503
  • Downloads: 503
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Description: This is a book about the big questions in life: knowledge, consciousness, fate, God, truth, goodness, justice. It is for anyone who believes there are big questions out there, but does not know how to approach them. Think sets out to explain what they are and why they are important. Simon Blackburn begins by putting forward a convincing case for the study of philosophy and goes on to give the reader a sense of how the great historical figures such as Descartes, Hume, Kant, and Wittgenstein have approached its central themes. Each chapter explains a major issue, and gives the reader a self-contained guide through the problems that philosophers have studied. The large scope of topics covered range from scepticism, the self, mond and body, and freedom to ethics and the arguments surrounding the existence of God. Lively and approachable, this book is ideal for all those who want to learn how the basic techniques of thinking shape our existence.


Pdf ebook: Hume's Problem Solved

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Summary: A new approach to Hume's problem of induction that justifies the optimality of induction at the level of meta-induction. Hume's problem of justifying induc

  • Author : Gerhard Schurz
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262352451
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 400
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1576
  • Downloads: 1576
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Description: A new approach to Hume's problem of induction that justifies the optimality of induction at the level of meta-induction. Hume's problem of justifying induction has been among epistemology's greatest challenges for centuries. In this book, Gerhard Schurz proposes a new approach to Hume's problem. Acknowledging the force of Hume's arguments against the possibility of a noncircular justification of the reliability of induction, Schurz demonstrates instead the possibility of a noncircular justification of the optimality of induction, or, more precisely, of meta-induction (the application of induction to competing prediction models). Drawing on discoveries in computational learning theory, Schurz demonstrates that a regret-based learning strategy, attractivity-weighted meta-induction, is predictively optimal in all possible worlds among all prediction methods accessible to the epistemic agent. Moreover, the a priori justification of meta-induction generates a noncircular a posteriori justification of object induction. Taken together, these two results provide a noncircular solution to Hume's problem. Schurz discusses the philosophical debate on the problem of induction, addressing all major attempts at a solution to Hume's problem and describing their shortcomings; presents a series of theorems, accompanied by a description of computer simulations illustrating the content of these theorems (with proofs presented in a mathematical appendix); and defends, refines, and applies core insights regarding the optimality of meta-induction, explaining applications in neighboring disciplines including forecasting sciences, cognitive science, social epistemology, and generalized evolution theory. Finally, Schurz generalizes the method of optimality-based justification to a new strategy of justification in epistemology, arguing that optimality justifications can avoid the problems of justificatory circularity and regress.


Pdf ebook: Story of Philosophy

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Summary: A brilliant and concise account of the lives and ideas of the great philosophers—Plato, Aristotle, Bacon, Spinoza, Voltaire, Kant, Schopenhauer, Spencer,

  • Author : Will Durant
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1476702608
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1802
  • Downloads: 1802
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Description: A brilliant and concise account of the lives and ideas of the great philosophers—Plato, Aristotle, Bacon, Spinoza, Voltaire, Kant, Schopenhauer, Spencer, Nietzsche, Bergson, Croce, Russell, Santayana, James, and Dewey—The Story of Philosophy is one of the great books of our time. Few write for the non-specialist as well as Will Durant, and this book is a splendid example of his eminently readable scholarship. Durant’s insight and wit never cease to dazzle; The Story of Philosophy is a key book for any reader who wishes to survey the history and development of philosophical ideas in the Western world.


Pdf ebook: The History of Philosophy

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Summary: “A witty, learned, authoritative survey of philosophical thought.” —The New York Times Book Review The first authoritative and accessible single-volu

  • Author : A. C. Grayling
  • Publisher: Penguin
  • ISBN: 1984878751
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 704
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1592
  • Downloads: 1592
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Description: “A witty, learned, authoritative survey of philosophical thought.” —The New York Times Book Review The first authoritative and accessible single-volume history of philosophy to cover both Western and Eastern traditions, from one of the world’s most eminent thinkers The story of philosophy is an epic tale, spanning civilizations and continents. It explores some of the most creative minds in history. But not since the long-popular classic by Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, published in 1945, has there been a comprehensive and entertaining single-volume history of this great, intellectual, world-shaping journey. With characteristic clarity and elegance, A. C. Grayling takes the reader from the age of the Buddha, Confucius, and Socrates through Christianity’s capture of the European mind, from the Renaissance and Enlightenment on to Mill, Nietzsche, Sartre and, finally, philosophy today. Surveying in tandem the great philosophical traditions of India, China, and the Persian-Arabic world, and astonishing in its range and accessibility, Grayling’s The History of Philosophy is destined to be a landmark work.


Pdf ebook: Our Fundamental Problem

Pdf download ebook Our Fundamental Problem

Summary: How can the world we live in and see, touch, hear, and smell, the world of living things, people, consciousness, free will, meaning, and value - how can al

  • Author : Nicholas Maxwell
  • Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
  • ISBN: 0228002869
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 298
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1380
  • Downloads: 1380
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Description: How can the world we live in and see, touch, hear, and smell, the world of living things, people, consciousness, free will, meaning, and value - how can all of this exist and flourish embedded as it is in the physical universe, made up of nothing but physical entities such as electrons and quarks? How can anything be of value if everything in the universe is, ultimately, just physics? In Our Fundamental Problem Nicholas Maxwell argues that this problem of reconciling the human and physical worlds needs to take centre stage in our thinking, so that our best ideas about it interact with our attempts to solve even more important specialized problems of thought and life. When we explore this fundamental problem, Maxwell argues, revolutionary answers emerge for a wide range of questions arising in philosophy, science, social inquiry, academic inquiry as a whole, and - most important of all - our capacity to solve the global problems that threaten our future: climate change, habitat destruction, extinction of species, inequality, war, pollution of earth, sea, and air. An unorthodox introduction to philosophy, Our Fundamental Problem brings philosophy down to earth and demonstrates its vital importance for science, scholarship, education, life, and the fate of the world.


Pdf ebook: Problems in Twentieth Century French Philosophy

Pdf download ebook Problems in Twentieth Century French Philosophy

Summary: Read through the lens of a single key concept in twentieth-century French philosophy, that of the "problem", this book relates the concept to specific thin

  • Author : Sean Bowden,Mark G. E. Kelly
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 0429514107
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 212
  • Language: English
  • Views: 561
  • Downloads: 561
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Description: Read through the lens of a single key concept in twentieth-century French philosophy, that of the "problem", this book relates the concept to specific thinkers and situates it in relation both to the wider history of philosophy and contemporary concerns. How exactly should the notion of problems be understood? What must a problem be in order to play an inaugurating role in thought? Does the word "problem" have a univocal sense? What is at stake – theoretically, ethically, politically, and institutionally – when philosophers use the word? This book addresses these and other questions, and is devoted to making historical and philosophical sense of the various uses and conceptualisations of notions of problems, problematics, and problematisations in twentieth-century French thought. In the process, it augments our understanding of the philosophical programs of a number of recent French thinkers, reconfigures our perception of the history and wider stakes of twentieth-century French philosophy, and reveals the ongoing theoretical richness and critical potential of the notion of the problem and its cognates. Working through the twentieth-century, and focussing on specific thinkers including Foucault and Deleuze, this book will be of interest to all scholars of French philosophy. This book was originally published as a special issue of Angelaki.


Pdf ebook: A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz

Pdf download ebook A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz

Summary: The writings of German mathematician and philosopher GOTTFRIED WILHELM LEIBNIZ (1646-1716) have had an incalculable impact on modern science and technology

  • Author : Bertrand Russell
  • Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.
  • ISBN: 1605204536
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 332
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1576
  • Downloads: 1576
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Description: The writings of German mathematician and philosopher GOTTFRIED WILHELM LEIBNIZ (1646-1716) have had an incalculable impact on modern science and technology, from physics and computers to law and psychology. But not everyone is a fervent fan. At the turn of the 20th century, the great British thinker Bertrand Russell uncovered what he believed was the hypocritical secret to Leibniz's philosophy: a hidden devotion to a logic he did not reveal in his writings. Here, Russell explores Leibniz's work from this perspective, examining the premises of Leibniz's work, the questions raised by his arguments, the validity of Leibniz's proofs, problems with his "philosophy of matter," and much more. First published in 1900, this is a replica of the 1937 second edition, and is complete with the original, extensive appendix of relevant extracts from Leibniz's work, essential for understanding Russell's critique. British philosopher and mathematician BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL (1872-1970) won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950. Among his many works are Why I Am Not a Christian (1927), Power: A New Social Analysis (1938), and My Philosophical Development (1959).


Pdf ebook: The Consolations of Philosophy

Pdf download ebook The Consolations of Philosophy

Summary: From the author of How Proust Can Change Your Life, a delightful, truly consoling work that proves that philosophy can be a supreme source of help for our

  • Author : Alain De Botton
  • Publisher: Vintage
  • ISBN: 030783350X
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 272
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1859
  • Downloads: 1859
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Description: From the author of How Proust Can Change Your Life, a delightful, truly consoling work that proves that philosophy can be a supreme source of help for our most painful everyday problems. Perhaps only Alain de Botton could uncover practical wisdom in the writings of some of the greatest thinkers of all time. But uncover he does, and the result is an unexpected book of both solace and humor. Dividing his work into six sections -- each highlighting a different psychic ailment and the appropriate philosopher -- de Botton offers consolation for unpopularity from Socrates, for not having enough money from Epicurus, for frustration from Seneca, for inadequacy from Montaigne, and for a broken heart from Schopenhauer (the darkest of thinkers and yet, paradoxically, the most cheering). Consolation for envy -- and, of course, the final word on consolation -- comes from Nietzsche: "Not everything which makes us feel better is good for us." This wonderfully engaging book will, however, make us feel better in a good way, with equal measures of wit and wisdom.


Pdf ebook: The Blackwell Companion to The Problem of Evil

Pdf download ebook The Blackwell Companion to The Problem of Evil

Summary: The Blackwell Companion to the Problem of Evil presents a collection of original essays providing both overview and insight, clarifying and evaluating the

  • Author : Justin P. McBrayer,Daniel Howard-Snyder
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 111860797X
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 528
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1919
  • Downloads: 1919
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Description: The Blackwell Companion to the Problem of Evil presents a collection of original essays providing both overview and insight, clarifying and evaluating the philosophical and theological “problem of evil” in its various contexts and manifestations. Features all original essays that explore the various forms of the problems of evil, offering theistic responses that attempt to explain evil as well as discussion of the challenges facing such explanations Includes section introductions with a historical essay that traces the developments of the issues explored Acknowledges the fact that there are many problems of evil, some of which apply only to those who believe in concepts such as hell and some of which apply to non-theists Represents views from the various religious traditions, including Hindu, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim


Pdf ebook: The Problem of Truth

Pdf download ebook The Problem of Truth

Summary: A problem of philosophy is completely different from a problem of science. In science we accept our subject-matter as it is presented in unanalysed experie

  • Author : Herbert Wildon Carr
  • Publisher: BALLANTYNE, HANSON & Co.
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Books
  • Number of Pages: 44
  • Language: English
  • Views: 848
  • Downloads: 848
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Description: A problem of philosophy is completely different from a problem of science. In science we accept our subject-matter as it is presented in unanalysed experience; in philosophy we examine the first principles and ultimate questions that concern conscious experience itself. The problem of truth is a problem of philosophy. It is not a problem of merely historical interest, but a present problem—a living controversy, the issue of which is undecided. Its present interest may be said to centre round the doctrine of pragmatism, which some fifteen years ago began to challenge the generally accepted principles of philosophy. In expounding this problem of truth, my main purpose has been to make clear to the reader the nature of a problem of philosophy and to disclose the secret of its interest. My book presumes no previous study of philosophy nor special knowledge of its problems. The theories that I have shown in conflict on this question are, each of them, held by some of the leaders of philosophy. In presenting them, therefore, I have tried to let the full dialectical force of the argument appear. I have indicated my own view, that the direction in which the solution lies is in the new conception of life and the theory of knowledge given to us in the philosophy of Bergson. If I am right, the solution is not, like pragmatism, a doctrine of the nature of truth, but a theory of knowledge in which {vi} the dilemma in regard to truth does not arise. But, as always in philosophy, the solution of one problem is the emergence of another. There is no finality. My grateful acknowledgment is due to my friend Professor S. Alexander, who kindly read my manuscript and assisted me with most valuable suggestions, and also to my friend Dr. T. Percy Nunn for a similar service.


Pdf ebook: Philosophical Inquiries

Pdf download ebook Philosophical Inquiries

Summary: In Philosophical Inquiries, Nicholas Rescher offers his perspectives on many of the foundational concerns of philosophy and reminds us that the purpose of

  • Author : Nicholas Rescher
  • Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
  • ISBN: 9780822973782
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 200
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1503
  • Downloads: 1503
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Description: In Philosophical Inquiries, Nicholas Rescher offers his perspectives on many of the foundational concerns of philosophy and reminds us that the purpose of philosophy is to “question the questions.” Rescher sees the need to inquire as an evolutionary tool for adapting to a hostile environment and shows how philosophy has thus developed in an evolutionary fashion, building upon acquired knowledge and upon itself. In a historical thread that informs and enriches his overview, Rescher recalls the contributions of Aristotle, Plato, Plotinus, Kant, Hegel, Leibniz, Laplace, Bertrand Russell, and others. Among his many topics, Rescher discusses knowledge and the unattainablity of absolutes, skepticism and its self-defeating nature, the limits of science vs. the limits of cognition, refuting reality as mind-independent, and idealism and divining our role in nature. He considers the universe and intelligence as the product of intelligent design, science and religion as non-conflicting and purposeful pursuits, and determinism and other fallacies surrounding the concept of free will. Rescher views morality in its hierarchal structure, its applicability to human coexistence, and its ontological commitment to the enhancement of value for ourselves and our world. He examines questions of authority and the problem of judging past actions or knowledge by present standards. Overall, he argues for philosophy as an unavoidable tool for rational, cogent responses to large questions.


Pdf ebook: Leo Strauss and the Problem of Political Philosophy

Pdf download ebook Leo Strauss and the Problem of Political Philosophy

Summary: Leo Strauss and his alleged political influence regarding the Iraq War have in recent years been the subject of significant media attention, including stor

  • Author : Michael P. Zuckert,Catherine H. Zuckert
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 022613587X
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 416
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1332
  • Downloads: 1332
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Description: Leo Strauss and his alleged political influence regarding the Iraq War have in recent years been the subject of significant media attention, including stories in the Wall Street Journal and New York Times.Time magazine even called him “one of the most influential men in American politics.” With The Truth about Leo Strauss, Michael and Catherine Zuckert challenged the many claims and speculations about this notoriously complex thinker. Now, with Leo Strauss and the Problem of Political Philosophy, they turn their attention to a searching and more comprehensive interpretation of Strauss’s thought as a whole, using the many manifestations of the “problem of political philosophy” as their touchstone. For Strauss, political philosophy presented a “problem” to which there have been a variety of solutions proposed over the course of Western history. Strauss’s work, they show, revolved around recovering—and restoring—political philosophy to its original Socratic form. Since positivism and historicism represented two intellectual currents that undermined the possibility of a Socratic political philosophy, the first part of the book is devoted to Strauss’s critique of these two positions. Then, the authors explore Strauss’s interpretation of the history of philosophy and both ancient and modern canonical political philosophers, including Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, and Locke. Strauss’s often-unconventional readings of these philosophers, they argue, pointed to solutions to the problem of political philosophy. Finally, the authors examine Strauss’s thought in the context of the twentieth century, when his chief interlocutors were Schmitt, Husserl, Heidegger, and Nietzsche. The most penetrating and capacious treatment of the political philosophy of this complex and often misunderstood thinker, from his early years to his last works, Leo Strauss and the Problem of Political Philosophy reveals Strauss’s writings as an attempt to show that the distinctive characteristics of ancient and modern thought derive from different modes of solving the problem of political philosophy and reveal why he considered the ancient solution both philosophically and politically superior.


Pdf ebook: The Problem of Knowledge

Pdf download ebook The Problem of Knowledge

Summary: Originally published in 1916. This book reviews the common problems of philosophy and then critiques the varied epistemological theories of the time. A the

  • Author : Douglas Clyde Macintosh
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 131744034X
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 519
  • Language: English
  • Views: 842
  • Downloads: 842
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Description: Originally published in 1916. This book reviews the common problems of philosophy and then critiques the varied epistemological theories of the time. A theory of knowledge may be either dualistic or monistic and realistic or idealistic. Examining the resulting doctrines at the beginning, this book then goes on to consider mysticism, psychology, logic, consciousness, intellectualism and then scientific method. A fascinating insight into early Twentieth century philosophy.


Pdf ebook: The Problems of Viewing Performance

Pdf download ebook The Problems of Viewing Performance

Summary: The Problems of Viewing Performance challenges long-held assumptions by considering the ways in which knowledge is received by more than a single audience

  • Author : Michael Y. Bennett
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351166948
  • Genre: Performing Arts
  • Number of Pages: 160
  • Language: English
  • Views: 975
  • Downloads: 975
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Description: The Problems of Viewing Performance challenges long-held assumptions by considering the ways in which knowledge is received by more than a single audience member, and breaks new ground by, counterintuitively, claiming that viewing performance is not a shared experience. Given that viewers come to each performance with differing amounts and types of knowledge, they each make different assumptions as to how the performance will unfold. Often modified by other viewers and often after the performance event, knowledge of performance is made more accurate by superimposing the experiences and justified beliefs of multiple viewers. These differences in the viewing experience make knowledge surrounding a performance intersubjective. Ultimately, this book explains the how and the why audience members have different viewing experiences. The Problems of Viewing Performance is important reading for theatre and performance students, scholars and practitioners, as it unpacks the dynamics of spectatorship and explores how audiences work.


Pdf ebook: Wittgenstein and the Problem of Metaphysics

Pdf download ebook Wittgenstein and the Problem of Metaphysics

Summary: Exploring the rupture between Wittgenstein's early and late phases, Michael Smith provides an original re-assessment of the metaphysical consistencies that

  • Author : Michael Smith
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
  • ISBN: 1350183431
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 224
  • Language: English
  • Views: 694
  • Downloads: 694
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Description: Exploring the rupture between Wittgenstein's early and late phases, Michael Smith provides an original re-assessment of the metaphysical consistencies that exist throughout his divergent texts. Smith shows how Wittgenstein's criticism of metaphysics typically invoked the very thing he was seeking to erase. Taking an alternative approach to the inherent contradiction in his work, the 'problem of metaphysics', as Smith terms it, becomes the organizing principle of Wittgenstein's thought rather than something to overcome. This metaphysical thread enables further reflection on the poetic nature of Wittgenstein's philosophy as well as his preoccupation with ethics and aesthetics as important factors mostly absent from the secondary literature. The turn to aesthetics is crucial to a re-assessment of Wittgenstein's legacy, and is done in conjunction with an innovative analysis of Nietzsche's critique of Kantian aesthetics and Kant's 'judgments of taste'. The result is a unique discussion of the limits and possibilities of metaphysics, aesthetics, ethics and the task of the philosopher more generally.


Pdf ebook: Georges Canguilhem and the Problem of Error

Pdf download ebook Georges Canguilhem and the Problem of Error

Summary: Examining Georges Canguilhem’s enduring attention to the problem of error, from his early writings to Michel Foucault’s first major responses to his wo

  • Author : Samuel Talcott
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3030007790
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 294
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1844
  • Downloads: 1844
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Description: Examining Georges Canguilhem’s enduring attention to the problem of error, from his early writings to Michel Foucault’s first major responses to his work, this pathbreaking book shows that the historian of science was also a centrally important philosopher in postwar France. Samuel Talcott elucidates Canguilhem’s contributions by drawing on previously neglected publications and archival sources to trace the continuity of commitment that led him to alter his early anti-vitalist, pacifist positions in the face of political catastrophe and concrete human problems. Talcott shows how Canguilhem critically appropriated the philosophical work of Alain, Bergson, Bachelard, and many others while developing his own distinct writings on medicine, experimentation, and scientific concepts in an ethical and political endeavor to resist alienation and injustice. And, while suggesting Canguilhem’s sometimes surprising philosophical importance for a range of younger thinkers, the book demonstrates Foucault’s own critical allegiance to Canguilhem’s spirit, techniques, and investigations.


Pdf ebook: Deweyan Experimentalism and the Problem of Method in Political Philosophy

Pdf download ebook Deweyan Experimentalism and the Problem of Method in Political Philosophy

Summary: This book proposes a pragmatist methodological framework for generating practically relevant political philosophy. It draws on John Dewey’s social and po

  • Author : Joshua Forstenzer
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351064444
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 280
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1332
  • Downloads: 1332
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Description: This book proposes a pragmatist methodological framework for generating practically relevant political philosophy. It draws on John Dewey’s social and political philosophy to develop an "experimentalist" method, thus charting a middle course between idealism and realism in political philosophy. Deweyan experimentalism promises to balance civic deliberation, empirical facts, and moral considerations by reconstructing Dewey’s pragmatist conceptions of ‘philosophy’ and ‘democracy’ from the perspective of social action. While some authors have taken the steps to articulate Dewey’s experimentalism, they have focused on institutional rather than methodological implications. This book is original in the ways in which it situates the role of ideas in political practice and contemporary political problems. Additionally, it underlines the similarities between today and the historical context in which Dewey wrote, connects Dewey’s social and political philosophy to Greek and Roman mythology, and concludes with a timely case study in which the author’s methodological insights are applied. The result is a book that offers a focused reconstruction of Dewey’s work and shows its relevance for engaging with contemporary issues in political philosophy and political theory.


Pdf ebook: The Problems of Jurisprudence

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Summary: In this book, one of our country’s most distinguished scholar-judges shares with us his vision of the law. For the past two thousand years, the philosoph

  • Author : Richard A. Posner
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 0674255488
  • Genre: Law
  • Number of Pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Views: 985
  • Downloads: 985
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Description: In this book, one of our country’s most distinguished scholar-judges shares with us his vision of the law. For the past two thousand years, the philosophy of law has been dominated by two rival doctrines. One contends that law is more than politics and yields, in the hands of skillful judges, correct answers to even the most difficult legal questions; the other contends that law is politics through and through and that judges wield essentially arbitrary powers. Rejecting these doctrines as too metaphysical in the first instance and too nihilistic in the second, Richard Posner argues for a pragmatic jurisprudence, one that eschews formalism in favor of the factual and the empirical. Laws, he argues, are not abstract, sacred entities, but socially determined goads for shaping behavior to conform with society’s values. Examining how judges go about making difficult decisions, Posner argues that they cannot rely on either logic or science, but must fall back on a grab bag of informal methods of reasoning that owe less than one might think to legal training and experience. Indeed, he reminds us, the greatest figures in American law have transcended the traditional conceptions of the lawyer’s craft. Robert Jackson did not attend law school and Benjamin Cardozo left before getting a degree. Holmes was neither the most successful of lawyers nor the most lawyerly of judges. Citing these examples, Posner makes a plea for a law that frees itself from excessive insularity and takes all knowledge, practical and theoretical, as grist for its mill. The pragmatism that Posner espouses implies looking at problems concretely, experimentally, without illusions, with an emphasis on keeping diverse paths of inquiry open, and, above all, with the insistence that social thought and action be evaluated as instruments to desired human goals rather than as ends in themselves. In making his arguments, he discusses notable figures in jurisprudence from Antigone to Ronald Dworkin as well as recent movements ranging from law and economics to civic republicanism, and feminism to libertarianism. All are subjected to Posner’s stringent analysis in a fresh and candid examination of some of the deepest problems presented by the enterprise of law.


Pdf ebook: Female Philosophers in Contemporary Taiwan and the Problem of Women in Chinese Thought

Pdf download ebook Female Philosophers in Contemporary Taiwan and the Problem of Women in Chinese Thought

Summary: This book illuminates the problem of women in Chinese philosophy through the lens of the lives and work of two contemporary Taiwanese female philosophers.

  • Author : Jana S. Rošker
  • Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
  • ISBN: 1527574946
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 310
  • Language: English
  • Views: 457
  • Downloads: 457
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Description: This book illuminates the problem of women in Chinese philosophy through the lens of the lives and work of two contemporary Taiwanese female philosophers. It takes two approaches that have been relegated, quite unfairly, to the margins of dominant discourses. The first is concerned with the work of women philosophical theorists who are still overshadowed by their male colleagues, regardless of where they live, their theoretical potential, and the value of their research. The second approach is related to the question of the role of Taiwanese philosophy in maintaining the continuity of the Chinese intellectual tradition in the second half of the twentieth century. The book thus connects these two issues and provides a bridge linking them. Although discrimination against female philosophical theorists, on the one hand, and the failure to recognize the important contribution of Taiwanese philosophy to the development of modern Chinese philosophy, on the other, seem, at first glance, to have little in common, both harbor a problem that has its roots in discourses of exclusion emanating from the political, historical, and social inequalities associated with power structures.


Pdf ebook: The Problems of Perception

Pdf download ebook The Problems of Perception

Summary: First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

  • Author : R. J. Hirst
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317851579
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 328
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1518
  • Downloads: 1518
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Description: First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.