Pdf ebook: Perpetual Carnival

Pdf download ebook Perpetual Carnival

Summary: Upholding literature and film together as academically interwoven, Perpetual Carnival underscores the everlasting coexistence of realism and modernism, esc

  • Author : N.a
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 019023914X
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Number of Pages: 224
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1595
  • Downloads: 1595
  • GET BOOK

Description: Upholding literature and film together as academically interwoven, Perpetual Carnival underscores the everlasting coexistence of realism and modernism, eschewing the popularly accepted view that the latter is itself a rejection of the former. Mining examples from both film and literature, Colin MacCabe asserts that the relationship between film and literature springs to life a wealth of beloved modernist art, from Jean-Luc Godard's Pierre le Fou to James Joyce's Ulysses, enriched by realism's enduring legacy. The intertextuality inherent in adaptation furthers this assertion in MacCabe's inclusion of Roman Polanski's Tess, a 1979 adaptation of Thomas Hardy's nineteenth-century realist novel, Tess of the d'Urbervilles. Showcasing essays enlivened by cosmopolitan interests, theoretical insight, and strong social purpose, Perpetual Carnival supports a humanities which repudiates narrow specialization and which seeks to place the discussion of film and literature firmly in the reality of current political and ideological discussion. It argues for the writers and directors, the thinkers and critics, who have most fired the contemporary imagination.


Pdf ebook: Cynicism from Diogenes to Dilbert

Pdf download ebook Cynicism from Diogenes to Dilbert

Summary: Cynicism began as a school of philosophy that was largely inspired by Socrates and often decried by popular commentators as a social pathology, a nihilisti

  • Author : Ian Cutler
  • Publisher: McFarland
  • ISBN: 1476604894
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 235
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1956
  • Downloads: 1956
  • GET BOOK

Description: Cynicism began as a school of philosophy that was largely inspired by Socrates and often decried by popular commentators as a social pathology, a nihilistic rebellion against the foundations of civilization. Modern definitions of the cynic describe an individual who is negative and sarcastic, violently opposed to established authority and social convention, and dedicated to existentialism. This book attempts to vindicate cynicism, arguing that it is both a progressive approach to social dilemmas and an enlightened understanding of the human condition. Chapter One establishes the foundations of classical Greek cynicism, while later chapters illustrate the varied faces of the cynic phenomenon in the persons of such disparate characters as Machiavelli, Nietzsche, Diogenes, the Dadaists, George Bataille, Samuel Beckett, Auberon Waugh, the creators of South Park, and others. Nietzsche is portrayed as the most important representative of both classical and postmodern cynicism, as well as the pivotal link between the two. The book focuses on significant periods of historical change, such as the Renaissance, and the historical cynics responsible for several seminal social ideas, including cosmopolitanism (citizenship of the world), asceticism (personal growth through self-testing), and parrhesia (finding one’s voice in the presence of tyrannical forces). The author claims that aspects of Greek cynicism are present in contemporary society, offering a positive strategy for living in a hostile world.


Pdf ebook: The Fool in European Theatre

Pdf download ebook The Fool in European Theatre

Summary: Why is folly essential to the functioning of a healthy society? Why is theatre a natural home for madness? The answers take the reader on a journey embraci

  • Author : T. Prentki
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 0230357504
  • Genre: Performing Arts
  • Number of Pages: 229
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1339
  • Downloads: 1339
  • GET BOOK

Description: Why is folly essential to the functioning of a healthy society? Why is theatre a natural home for madness? The answers take the reader on a journey embracing Shakespeare and Jonson, Brecht and Beckett, Büchner and Boal. From Falstaff to Fo via Figaro, this study examines the art of telling truth to power and surviving long enough to have a laugh.


Pdf ebook: Ethnomusicology: A Contemporary Reader, Volume II

Pdf download ebook Ethnomusicology: A Contemporary Reader, Volume II

Summary: Ethnomusicology: A Contemporary Reader, Volume II provides an overview of developments in the study of ethnomusicology in the twenty-first century, offerin

  • Author : Jennifer C. Post
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 131543914X
  • Genre: Music
  • Number of Pages: 336
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1693
  • Downloads: 1693
  • GET BOOK

Description: Ethnomusicology: A Contemporary Reader, Volume II provides an overview of developments in the study of ethnomusicology in the twenty-first century, offering an introduction to contemporary issues relevant to the field. Nineteen essays, written by an international array of scholars, highlight the relationship between current issues in the discipline and ethnomusicologists’ engagement with issues such as advocacy, poverty and social participation, maintaining intangible cultural heritages, and ecological concerns. It provides a forum for rethinking the discipline’s identity in terms of major themes and issues to which ethnomusicologists have turned their attention since Volume I published in 2005. The collection of essays is organized into six sections: Property and Rights Applied Practice Knowledge and Agency Community and Social Space Embodiment and Cognition Curating Sound Volume II serves as a basic introduction to the best writing in the field for students, professors, and music professionals, perfect for both introductory and upper level courses in world music. Together with the first volume, Ethnomusicology: A Contemporary Reader, Volume II provides a comprehensive survey of current research directions.


Pdf ebook: Acapulco Rampage

Pdf download ebook Acapulco Rampage

Summary: In Mexico’s most glamorous resort, the Executioner targets the heroin trade Bobby Cassiopea is one of the new breed of American mobsters: a stylish jet s

  • Author : Don Pendleton
  • Publisher: Open Road Media
  • ISBN: 1497685788
  • Genre: Fiction
  • Number of Pages: 186
  • Language: English
  • Views: 809
  • Downloads: 809
  • GET BOOK

Description: In Mexico’s most glamorous resort, the Executioner targets the heroin trade Bobby Cassiopea is one of the new breed of American mobsters: a stylish jet setter whose high-finance reputation hides a corrupt criminal soul. It is on the backs of slick young men like Bobby Cass that the Mafia hopes to escape its thuggish reputation and move into the upper crust of international crime. The war for Acapulco has begun. In this nexus of jet-set style and global drug trafficking, the Mafia grows like a cancer. Bolan has come to cut it out. Acapulco Rampage is the 26th book in the Executioner series, but you may enjoy reading the series in any order.


Pdf ebook: Literary Modernism, Queer Temporality

Pdf download ebook Literary Modernism, Queer Temporality

Summary: This book explores the intersection between the recent work on queer temporality and the experiments of literary modernism. Kate Haffey argues that queer t

  • Author : Kate Haffey
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3030173011
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Number of Pages: 205
  • Language: English
  • Views: 803
  • Downloads: 803
  • GET BOOK

Description: This book explores the intersection between the recent work on queer temporality and the experiments of literary modernism. Kate Haffey argues that queer theory’s recent work on time owes a debt to modernist authors who developed new ways of representing temporality in their texts. By reading a series of early twentieth-century literary texts from modernists like Woolf, Eliot, Faulkner, and Stein alongside contemporary authors, this book examines the way in which modernist writers challenged narrative conventions of time in ways that both illuminate and foreshadow current scholarship on queer temporality. In her analyses of contemporary novelists and critics Michael Cunningham, Jeanette Winterson, Angela Carter, and Eve Sedgwick, Haffey also shows that these modernist temporalities have been reconfigured by contemporary authors to develop new approaches to futurity.


Pdf ebook: Ecorse Michigan

Pdf download ebook Ecorse Michigan

Summary: Ecorse, the oldest downriver community, was the site of many critical battles from the French and Indian War through the War of 1812 as French and English

  • Author : Kathy Covert Warnes
  • Publisher: Arcadia Publishing
  • ISBN: 1625843208
  • Genre: History
  • Number of Pages: 160
  • Language: English
  • Views: 661
  • Downloads: 661
  • GET BOOK

Description: Ecorse, the oldest downriver community, was the site of many critical battles from the French and Indian War through the War of 1812 as French and English settlers forged new homes in the Michigan wilderness. By 1827, the scattering of settlers had developed into a small community, and the township of Ecorse was formed. During the Prohibition era, the peaceful riverfront was transformed into hideouts for rumrunners and other nefarious lawbreakers. From a prosperous shipbuilding industry to a championship rowing club and the Detroit River runs made by the Bob-Lo boats, Ecorse's maritime history is one that continues to engage residents and impel the community forward.


Pdf ebook: Shakespeare's Representation of Weather, Climate and Environment

Pdf download ebook Shakespeare's Representation of Weather, Climate and Environment

Summary: The first comprehensive history of Byzantine warfare in the tenth century.

  • Author : Sophie Chiari
  • Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
  • ISBN: 1474442544
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Number of Pages: 309
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1191
  • Downloads: 1191
  • GET BOOK

Description: The first comprehensive history of Byzantine warfare in the tenth century.


Pdf ebook: Tricksters and Pranksters

Pdf download ebook Tricksters and Pranksters

Summary: This volume represents a contribution to comparative scholarship in Medieval and Renaissance studies in its investigation of the ingenious diversity of rog

  • Author : Alison Williams
  • Publisher: Rodopi
  • ISBN: 9789042015128
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Number of Pages: 236
  • Language: English
  • Views: 863
  • Downloads: 863
  • GET BOOK

Description: This volume represents a contribution to comparative scholarship in Medieval and Renaissance studies in its investigation of the ingenious diversity of roguish practices found in Medieval and Renaissance literature and its recognition of the coherent normative function of tales of tricksters and pranksters. The wide variety of works analysed, from those forming part of the established canon of texts on undergraduate degree schemes to lesser-known works, makes the volume of interest to students and researchers alike. The roguish behaviour of women, priests, foxes and outlaws and the knavery of Eulenspiegel and Panurge are used to illustrate how rituals of inversion and humiliation typical of the medieval carnival are reflected in literary accounts of trickery, and to question whether the restorative function attributed to carnival celebration is equally to be found in the intra-textual and extra-textual outcomes of trickery. This analysis is supported by studies into the trickster in mythology, sociological investigations into the role of disorder, Bakhtinian theories of carnival and the carnivalesque, and theories of black humour.


Pdf ebook: Durrell and the City

Pdf download ebook Durrell and the City

Summary: Durrell and the City commemorates the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Quartet with a collection of fourteen new essays by a group of internation

  • Author : Donald P. Kaczvinsky
  • Publisher: Lexington Books
  • ISBN: 161147454X
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Number of Pages: 216
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1559
  • Downloads: 1559
  • GET BOOK

Description: Durrell and the City commemorates the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Quartet with a collection of fourteen new essays by a group of international scholars and critics. The collection provides a critical understanding of all Durrell's urban landscapes, but focuses on the place that made him famous—the city of Alexandria—in order to provide a reassessment of his career and achievement.


Pdf ebook: The Other Side of Forever

Pdf download ebook The Other Side of Forever

Summary: Every French woman knows about 'le coup de foudre', the thunderbolt of love at first sight that changes your life forever. But romance is the last thing on

  • Author : Josette King,Elizabeth Cappelletti Lmft
  • Publisher: eBookIt.com
  • ISBN: 1456605305
  • Genre: Fiction
  • Number of Pages: 393
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1863
  • Downloads: 1863
  • GET BOOK

Description: Every French woman knows about 'le coup de foudre', the thunderbolt of love at first sight that changes your life forever. But romance is the last thing on the mind of Jacqueline Marechal when the young Parisian woman arrives in Cologne in 1963, during the days leading to Carnival. All she wants is relief from her rigid family environment, and to bide her time while she devises a plan to escape even farther, all the way to America. Until she meets Rainer Heinrich. A self-professed cynic, German student Rainer Heinrich doesn't believe in love. He is content to observe its ravages from afar and relish his own carefree life. Until he meets Jacqueline Marechal. With the fearless innocence of young love, they trust that the intensity of their feelings will overcome national borders and centuries-old prejudices. Yet the forever happiness they promise each other is not meant to be. The opposition of her parents soon forces them apart. But they never forget. When their paths cross again two decades later, they finally confront the youthful fantasies that shaped their lives. From historic Boston suburbs to glamorous European cities, they must face The Other Side of Forever.


Pdf ebook: French Humour

Pdf download ebook French Humour

Summary: French humour is examined in a number of contexts: literary, filmic, linguistic, propagandistic and theoretical. The fields of study vary from medieval nar

  • Author : John Parkin
  • Publisher: Rodopi
  • ISBN: 9789042005860
  • Genre: Fiction
  • Number of Pages: 232
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1877
  • Downloads: 1877
  • GET BOOK

Description: French humour is examined in a number of contexts: literary, filmic, linguistic, propagandistic and theoretical. The fields of study vary from medieval narrative to the contemporary detective novel, via Renaissance fiction, seventeenth-century satire, nineteenth-century polemic, and French New Wave cinema. Specific chapters are dedicated to Rabelais, La Bruyere, Bergson, Beckett and San-Antonio. The volume employs a flexible approach aiming to re-examine and question such established preconceptions as the decadence of fifteenth-century humour, the philosophical pre-eminence of Bergson, the originality of Truffaut, Chabrol and Godard, and the very existence of a French humour which is definably different from that of other European and American trends. Conversely, the themes of sexual and marital humour, Rabelaisian bawdy, intellectualised and irreverent wit, le comique (as contrast l'humour), political satire and black humour emerge repeatedly as characteristic, if not definitive, of the French comic tradition.


Pdf ebook: The Power of Death

Pdf download ebook The Power of Death

Summary: The social and cultural changes of the last century have transformed death from an everyday fact to something hidden from view. Shifting between the practi

  • Author : Maria-José Blanco,Ricarda Vidal
  • Publisher: Berghahn Books
  • ISBN: 1782384340
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 272
  • Language: English
  • Views: 758
  • Downloads: 758
  • GET BOOK

Description: The social and cultural changes of the last century have transformed death from an everyday fact to something hidden from view. Shifting between the practical and the theoretical, the professional and the intimate, the real and the fictitious, this collection of essays explores the continued power of death over our lives. It examines the idea and experience of death from an interdisciplinary perspective, including studies of changing burial customs throughout Europe; an account of a“dying party” in the Netherlands; examinations of the fascination with violent death in crime fiction and the phenomenon of serial killer art; analyses of death and bereavement in poetry, fiction, and autobiography; and a look at audience reactions to depictions of death on screen. By studying and considering how death is thought about in the contemporary era, we might restore the natural place it has in our lives.


Pdf ebook: Byron: The Poetry of Politics and the Politics of Poetry

Pdf download ebook Byron: The Poetry of Politics and the Politics of Poetry

Summary: 'It is no great matter, supposing that Italy could be liberated, who or what is sacrificed. It is a grand object - the very poetry of politics. Only think

  • Author : Roderick Beaton,Christine Kenyon Jones
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317170296
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Number of Pages: 300
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1174
  • Downloads: 1174
  • GET BOOK

Description: 'It is no great matter, supposing that Italy could be liberated, who or what is sacrificed. It is a grand object - the very poetry of politics. Only think - a free Italy!!! Why, there has been nothing like it since the days of Augustus.' So wrote Lord Byron in his journal, in February 1821, only days before the outbreak of revolution in Greece, where three years later he would die in the service of the revolutionary cause. For a poet whose life and work are interlaced with action of multiple sorts, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to Byron's engagement with issues of politics. This volume brings together the work of eminent Byronists from seven European countries and the USA to re-assess the evidence. What did Byron mean by the 'poetry of politics'? Was he, in any sense, a 'political animal'? Can his final, fateful involvement in Greece be understood as the culmination of earlier, more deeply rooted quests? The first part of the book examines the implications of reading and writing as themselves political acts; the second interrogates the politics inherent or implied in Byron's poems and plays; the third follows the trajectory of his political engagement (or non-engagement), from his abortive early career in the British House of Lords, via the Peninsular War in Spain to his involvement in revolutionary politics abroad.


Pdf ebook: Battle of Symbols - Global Dynamics of Advertising, Media & Entertainment

Pdf download ebook Battle of Symbols - Global Dynamics of Advertising, Media & Entertainment

Summary: Symbols increasingly dominate international communication. Their power was demonstrated by the events of 9/11 and the war against terrorism. Yet few unders

  • Author : John Fraim
  • Publisher: Daimon
  • ISBN: 3856309543
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Number of Pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1372
  • Downloads: 1372
  • GET BOOK

Description: Symbols increasingly dominate international communication. Their power was demonstrated by the events of 9/11 and the war against terrorism. Yet few understand them. Now, more than ever, it is important to understand symbols in a global context. In his new book Battle of Symbols, John Fraim examines 9/11 in light of global symbolism. While the events of 9/11 represented the beginning of the war against terrorism, Fraim notes “the real ’battle of symbols’ started long before September 11th and will continue long after the fall of the Taliban regime or Saddam Hussein.” The book observes the response of the American symbolism industry to the events of 9/11. As Fraim notes, the events of 9/11 offered a rare opportunity to observe how American symbols are created (by Madison Avenue advertising and Hollywood entertainment), communicated (by New York media) and managed (by Washington public relations). One of the more hopeful outcomes of 9/11 was the instigation of an international dialogue about the power of symbols. From this continuing dialogue America and the world have gained a new awareness of the growing power of symbols. Whether this awareness will lead to a new understanding of symbols on a national and global scale is one of the most important questions facing America (and the world) today.


Pdf ebook: The Other Side

Pdf download ebook The Other Side

Summary: The Other Side is the tale of Jude St. Simon, a sixteen-year-old private school boy who discovers he can see and communicate with ghosts. He becomes drawn

  • Author : Dan Pagano
  • Publisher: AuthorHouse
  • ISBN: 1546272909
  • Genre: Fiction
  • Number of Pages: 354
  • Language: English
  • Views: 504
  • Downloads: 504
  • GET BOOK

Description: The Other Side is the tale of Jude St. Simon, a sixteen-year-old private school boy who discovers he can see and communicate with ghosts. He becomes drawn into people’s lives as he tries to help not only the dead to pass on but also their families to cope with their intense grief. Soon he starts to see angels, and he even crosses over the great divide into heaven. Jude quickly learns that there is a spiritual war raging behind the scenes of the world, and he must choose his side in it. His journey becomes a fight for survival as he tries to protect his friends and save Paris from an imminent threat. The pace of the action is brisk, and the climax is unpredictable and gripping. It is a wild ride and a journey into fantastical worlds of imagination.


Pdf ebook: The Renaissance Popes: Culture, Power, and the Making of the Borgia Myth

Pdf download ebook The Renaissance Popes: Culture, Power, and the Making of the Borgia Myth

Summary: Between the years of 1447 (Nicholas V) and 1572 (Pius V) Rome was transformed from a ruined Medieval city. The Vatican became the official home of the chur

  • Author : Gerard Noel
  • Publisher: Constable
  • ISBN: 147212507X
  • Genre: Biography & Autobiography
  • Number of Pages: 429
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1505
  • Downloads: 1505
  • GET BOOK

Description: Between the years of 1447 (Nicholas V) and 1572 (Pius V) Rome was transformed from a ruined Medieval city. The Vatican became the official home of the church and the worlds largest bureaucracy, a spectacular new Basilica of St Peters took 100 years to build and Michelangelo changed the course of art history with his Sistine Chapel. So vast and expensive was this cultural explosion that a new fundraising initiative was launched: the sale of indulgences. The Renaissance Popes were statesmen, warriors, patrons of the arts as well as churchmen. These were earthly times and the reputations of popes like Alexander VI, the infamous Borgia patriarch, and Julius 'Il Terrible' II for murder, poison, sodomy and simony vary only in degree. Meanwhile, the sin of heresy, which threatens the very core of the Catholic soul, was tirelessly targeted by two other lasting innovations of the period: the Inquisition and witch-hunts. Alexander VI, father of the ruthless Cesare and jezebel Lucrezia, is seen to this day as the embodiment of this iniquity. But Gerard Noel shows this is unjust, and based on false confessions and historical myth. What's more, Alexander created the blueprint for reform -- the first of its kind -- that would eventually lead to the Counter-Reformation. In his survey of the colourful reigns of the seventeen Renaissance Popes and his examination of the great Borgia myth Noel brings to light the true legacy -- political, artistic, religious -- of an extraordinary time.


Pdf ebook: Wisdom of Eccentric Old Men

Pdf download ebook Wisdom of Eccentric Old Men

Summary: Bly's principal revelation is that Galdós deliberately and consistently used this secondary type to emphasize the significance of the major plot developme

  • Author : Peter Anthony Bly
  • Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
  • ISBN: 0773572309
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Number of Pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Views: 906
  • Downloads: 906
  • GET BOOK

Description: Bly's principal revelation is that Galdós deliberately and consistently used this secondary type to emphasize the significance of the major plot developments and to underline the strengths or weaknesses of principal characters. In filling these roles the eccentric old men develop from comic shallow types into more complex secondary characters, men of insight and wisdom, who occupy a pivotal position in the novels.


Pdf ebook: The City in Crimson Cloak

Pdf download ebook The City in Crimson Cloak

Summary: From an “exceptionally sensitive and perceptive” Turkish writer and human rights activist (Orhan Pamuk, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature), the c

  • Author : Asli Erdogan
  • Publisher: Catapult
  • ISBN: 1593766920
  • Genre: Fiction
  • Number of Pages: 192
  • Language: English
  • Views: 821
  • Downloads: 821
  • GET BOOK

Description: From an “exceptionally sensitive and perceptive” Turkish writer and human rights activist (Orhan Pamuk, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature), the captivating story of a writer whose own autobiographical novel forces her to come to terms with the dichotomy of the city she once loved: Rio de Janeiro. Özgür is a young woman on fire: poor, hungry, and on the verge of a mental breakdown. She has only one weapon: her ability to write the city that has robbed her of everything, Rio de Janeiro. Through the reading of the bits and pieces of Özgür’s unfinished eponymous novel, with its autobiographical protagonist named Ö, Özgür’s story begins to emerge. As Özgür follows Ö through the shanty towns, Condomble rituals, and the violence and sexuality of the streets of Rio, the reader follows Özgür as she searches for a way to make peace with life, a route to catharsis. Together, the two concentric novels reveal the blurry borderline between the two Rio's -- one a metaphor for death, one a city of life. A major hit when it was released in Turkey and Europe, The City in Crimson Cloak is brilliantly evocative and wildly experimental, doing for Rio what Joyce did for Dublin.


Pdf ebook: Rethinking G.K. Chesterton and Literary Modernism

Pdf download ebook Rethinking G.K. Chesterton and Literary Modernism

Summary: This book comprehensively rethinks the relationship between G.K. Chesterton and a range of key literary modernists. When Chesterton and modernism have prev

  • Author : Michael Shallcross
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317192605
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Number of Pages: 296
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1376
  • Downloads: 1376
  • GET BOOK

Description: This book comprehensively rethinks the relationship between G.K. Chesterton and a range of key literary modernists. When Chesterton and modernism have previously been considered in relation to one another, the dynamic has typically been conceived as one of mutual hostility, grounded in Chesterton’s advocacy of popular culture and modernist literature’s appeal to an aesthetic elite. In setting out to challenge this binary narrative, Shallcross establishes for the first time the depth and ambivalence of Chesterton’s engagement with modernism, as well as the reciprocal fascination of leading modernist writers with Chesterton’s fiction and thought. Shallcross argues that this dynamic was defined by various forms of parody and performance, and that these histrionic expressions of cultural play not only suffused the era, but found particular embodiment in Chesterton’s public persona. This reading not only enables a far-reaching reassessment of Chesterton’s corpus, but also produces a framework through which to re-evaluate the creative and critical projects of a host of modernist writers—most sustainedly, T.S. Eliot, Wyndham Lewis, and Ezra Pound—through the prism of Chesterton's disruptive presence. The result is an innovative study of the literary performance of popular and ‘high’ culture in early twentieth-century Britain, which adds a valuable new perspective to continuing critical debates on the parameters of modernism.