Pdf ebook: Deep Oil Spills

Pdf download ebook Deep Oil Spills

Summary: The demand for oil and gas has brought exploration and production to unprecedented depths of the world’s oceans. Currently, over 50% of the oil from the

  • Author : N.a
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3030116050
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 611
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1808
  • Downloads: 1808
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Description: The demand for oil and gas has brought exploration and production to unprecedented depths of the world’s oceans. Currently, over 50% of the oil from the Gulf of Mexico now comes from waters in excess of 1,500 meters (one mile) deep, where no oil was produced just 20 years ago. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill blowout did much to change the perception of oil spills as coming just from tanker accidents, train derailments, and pipeline ruptures. In fact, beginning with the Ixtoc 1 spill off Campeche, Mexico in 1979-1980, there have been a series of large spill events originating at the sea bottom and creating a myriad of new environmental and well control challenges. This volume explores the physics, chemistry, sub-surface oil deposition and environmental impacts of deep oil spills. Key lessons learned from the responses to previous deep spills, as well as unresolved scientific questions for additional research are highlighted, all of which are appropriate for governmental regulators, politicians, industry decision-makers, first responders, researchers and students wanting an incisive overview of issues surrounding deep-water oil and gas production.


Pdf ebook: Canola

Pdf download ebook Canola

Summary: This book gives a complete picture of the canola crop including its history, botany, genetics, distribution, breeding and biotechnology, production, proces

  • Author : James K. Daun,N A Michael Eskin,Dave Hickling
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0128043482
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Number of Pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Views: 422
  • Downloads: 422
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Description: This book gives a complete picture of the canola crop including its history, botany, genetics, distribution, breeding and biotechnology, production, processing, composition, nutritional properties and utilization of the seed, oil and meal, as well as an economic profile. While the main focus in this book is on canola of Canadian origin, its cousin crop oilseed rape will also be discussed to a lesser extent. The work provides up-to-date information on the crop and highlights areas where research and development is either needed or is in process. Provides extensive information on the canola plant, including breeding, genetic engineering for trait development, and seed morphology and composition Editors and contributors are global leaders in canola research and application Offers a comprehensive overview of canola oil and meal composition, nutrition, and utilization


Pdf ebook: Molecular Modeling and Simulation

Pdf download ebook Molecular Modeling and Simulation

Summary: Very broad overview of the field intended for an interdisciplinary audience; Lively discussion of current challenges written in a colloquial style; Author

  • Author : Tamar Schlick
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 0387224645
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 635
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1390
  • Downloads: 1390
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Description: Very broad overview of the field intended for an interdisciplinary audience; Lively discussion of current challenges written in a colloquial style; Author is a rising star in this discipline; Suitably accessible for beginners and suitably rigorous for experts; Features extensive four-color illustrations; Appendices featuring homework assignments and reading lists complement the material in the main text


Pdf ebook: The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks

Pdf download ebook The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks

Summary: Biodiversity observation systems are almost everywhere inadequate to meet local, national and international (treaty) obligations. As a result of alarmingly

  • Author : Michele Walters,Robert J. Scholes
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319272888
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 326
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1976
  • Downloads: 1976
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Description: Biodiversity observation systems are almost everywhere inadequate to meet local, national and international (treaty) obligations. As a result of alarmingly rapid declines in biodiversity in the modern era, there is a strong, worldwide desire to upgrade our monitoring systems, but little clarity on what is actually needed and how it can be assembled from the elements which are already present. This book intends to provide practical guidance to broadly-defined biodiversity observation networks at all scales, but predominantly the national scale and higher. This is a practical how-to book with substantial policy relevance. It will mostly be used by technical specialists with a responsibility for biodiversity monitoring to establish and refine their systems. It is written at a technical level, but one that is not discipline-bound: it should be intelligible to anyone in the broad field with a tertiary education.


Pdf ebook: Chemical Engineering Design

Pdf download ebook Chemical Engineering Design

Summary: Chemical Engineering Design, Second Edition, deals with the application of chemical engineering principles to the design of chemical processes and equipmen

  • Author : Gavin Towler,Ray Sinnott
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0080966608
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Number of Pages: 1320
  • Language: English
  • Views: 868
  • Downloads: 868
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Description: Chemical Engineering Design, Second Edition, deals with the application of chemical engineering principles to the design of chemical processes and equipment. Revised throughout, this edition has been specifically developed for the U.S. market. It provides the latest US codes and standards, including API, ASME and ISA design codes and ANSI standards. It contains new discussions of conceptual plant design, flowsheet development, and revamp design; extended coverage of capital cost estimation, process costing, and economics; and new chapters on equipment selection, reactor design, and solids handling processes. A rigorous pedagogy assists learning, with detailed worked examples, end of chapter exercises, plus supporting data, and Excel spreadsheet calculations, plus over 150 Patent References for downloading from the companion website. Extensive instructor resources, including 1170 lecture slides and a fully worked solutions manual are available to adopting instructors. This text is designed for chemical and biochemical engineering students (senior undergraduate year, plus appropriate for capstone design courses where taken, plus graduates) and lecturers/tutors, and professionals in industry (chemical process, biochemical, pharmaceutical, petrochemical sectors). New to this edition: Revised organization into Part I: Process Design, and Part II: Plant Design. The broad themes of Part I are flowsheet development, economic analysis, safety and environmental impact and optimization. Part II contains chapters on equipment design and selection that can be used as supplements to a lecture course or as essential references for students or practicing engineers working on design projects. New discussion of conceptual plant design, flowsheet development and revamp design Significantly increased coverage of capital cost estimation, process costing and economics New chapters on equipment selection, reactor design and solids handling processes New sections on fermentation, adsorption, membrane separations, ion exchange and chromatography Increased coverage of batch processing, food, pharmaceutical and biological processes All equipment chapters in Part II revised and updated with current information Updated throughout for latest US codes and standards, including API, ASME and ISA design codes and ANSI standards Additional worked examples and homework problems The most complete and up to date coverage of equipment selection 108 realistic commercial design projects from diverse industries A rigorous pedagogy assists learning, with detailed worked examples, end of chapter exercises, plus supporting data and Excel spreadsheet calculations plus over 150 Patent References, for downloading from the companion website Extensive instructor resources: 1170 lecture slides plus fully worked solutions manual available to adopting instructors


Pdf ebook: Design and Operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Pdf download ebook Design and Operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Summary: Design and Operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: The Systems Engineering Vision for Industrial Application presents a comprehensive, critical and accessible

  • Author : Mahdi Sharifzadeh
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0128154292
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 648
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1220
  • Downloads: 1220
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Description: Design and Operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: The Systems Engineering Vision for Industrial Application presents a comprehensive, critical and accessible review of the latest research in the field of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). As well as discussing the theoretical aspects of the field, the book explores a diverse range of power applications, such as hybrid power plants, polygeneration, distributed electricity generation, energy storage and waste management—all with a focus on modeling and computational skills. Dr. Sharifzadeh presents the associated risks and limitations throughout the discussion, providing a very complete and thorough analysis of SOFCs and their control and operation in power plants. The first of its kind, this book will be of particular interest to energy engineers, industry experts and academic researchers in the energy, power and transportation industries, as well as those working and researching in the chemical, environmental and material sectors. Closes the gap between various power engineering disciples by considering a diverse variety of applications and sectors Presents and reviews a variety of modeling techniques and considers regulations throughout Includes CFD modeling examples and process simulation and optimization programming guidance


Pdf ebook: Realising REDD+

Pdf download ebook Realising REDD+

Summary: REDD+ must be transformational. REDD+ requires broad institutional and governance reforms, such as tenure, decentralisation, and corruption control. These

  • Author : Arild Angelsen
  • Publisher: CIFOR
  • ISBN: 6028693030
  • Genre: Climatic changes
  • Number of Pages: 362
  • Language: English
  • Views: 504
  • Downloads: 504
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Description: REDD+ must be transformational. REDD+ requires broad institutional and governance reforms, such as tenure, decentralisation, and corruption control. These reforms will enable departures from business as usual, and involve communities and forest users in making and implementing policies that a ect them. Policies must go beyond forestry. REDD+ strategies must include policies outside the forestry sector narrowly de ned, such as agriculture and energy, and better coordinate across sectors to deal with non-forest drivers of deforestation and degradation. Performance-based payments are key, yet limited. Payments based on performance directly incentivise and compensate forest owners and users. But schemes such as payments for environmental services (PES) depend on conditions, such as secure tenure, solid carbon data and transparent governance, that are often lacking and take time to change. This constraint reinforces the need for broad institutional and policy reforms. We must learn from the past. Many approaches to REDD+ now being considered are similar to previous e orts to conserve and better manage forests, often with limited success. Taking on board lessons learned from past experience will improve the prospects of REDD+ e ectiveness. National circumstances and uncertainty must be factored in. Di erent country contexts will create a variety of REDD+ models with di erent institutional and policy mixes. Uncertainties about the shape of the future global REDD+ system, national readiness and political consensus require  exibility and a phased approach to REDD+ implementation.


Pdf ebook: Comprehensive Organic Chemistry Experiments for the Laboratory Classroom

Pdf download ebook Comprehensive Organic Chemistry Experiments for the Laboratory Classroom

Summary: This expansive and practical textbook contains organic chemistry experiments for teaching in the laboratory at the undergraduate level covering a range of

  • Author : Carlos A M Afonso,Nuno R Candeias,Dulce Pereira Simão,Alexandre F Trindade,Jaime A S Coelho,Bin Tan,Robert Franzén
  • Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
  • ISBN: 183916297X
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 951
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1433
  • Downloads: 1433
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Description: This expansive and practical textbook contains organic chemistry experiments for teaching in the laboratory at the undergraduate level covering a range of functional group transformations and key organic reactions.The editorial team have collected contributions from around the world and standardized them for publication. Each experiment will explore a modern chemistry scenario, such as: sustainable chemistry; application in the pharmaceutical industry; catalysis and material sciences, to name a few. All the experiments will be complemented with a set of questions to challenge the students and a section for the instructors, concerning the results obtained and advice on getting the best outcome from the experiment. A section covering practical aspects with tips and advice for the instructors, together with the results obtained in the laboratory by students, has been compiled for each experiment. Targeted at professors and lecturers in chemistry, this useful text will provide up to date experiments putting the science into context for the students.


Pdf ebook: Bird Species

Pdf download ebook Bird Species

Summary: The average person can name more bird species than they think, but do we really know what a bird “species” is? This open access book takes up several f

  • Author : Dieter Thomas Tietze
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319916890
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 266
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1940
  • Downloads: 1940
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Description: The average person can name more bird species than they think, but do we really know what a bird “species” is? This open access book takes up several fascinating aspects of bird life to elucidate this basic concept in biology. From genetic and physiological basics to the phenomena of bird song and bird migration, it analyzes various interactions of birds – with their environment and other birds. Lastly, it shows imminent threats to birds in the Anthropocene, the era of global human impact. Although it seemed to be easy to define bird species, the advent of modern methods has challenged species definition and led to a multidisciplinary approach to classifying birds. One outstanding new toolbox comes with the more and more reasonably priced acquisition of whole-genome sequences that allow causative analyses of how bird species diversify. Speciation has reached a final stage when daughter species are reproductively isolated, but this stage is not easily detectable from the phenotype we observe. Culturally transmitted traits such as bird song seem to speed up speciation processes, while another behavioral trait, migration, helps birds to find food resources, and also coincides with higher chances of reaching new, inhabitable areas. In general, distribution is a major key to understanding speciation in birds. Examples of ecological speciation can be found in birds, and the constant interaction of birds with their biotic environment also contributes to evolutionary changes. In the Anthropocene, birds are confronted with rapid changes that are highly threatening for some species. Climate change forces birds to move their ranges, but may also disrupt well-established interactions between climate, vegetation, and food sources. This book brings together various disciplines involved in observing bird species come into existence, modify, and vanish. It is a rich resource for bird enthusiasts who want to understand various processes at the cutting edge of current research in more detail. At the same time it offers students the opportunity to see primarily unconnected, but booming big-data approaches such as genomics and biogeography meet in a topic of broad interest. Lastly, the book enables conservationists to better understand the uncertainties surrounding “species” as entities of protection.


Pdf ebook: The Dry Forests and Woodlands of Africa

Pdf download ebook The Dry Forests and Woodlands of Africa

Summary: The dry forests and woodlands of Sub-Saharan Africa are major ecosystems, with a broad range of strong economic and cultural incentives for keeping them in

  • Author : Emmanuel N. Chidumayo,Davison J. Gumbo
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136531378
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Number of Pages: 304
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1317
  • Downloads: 1317
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Description: The dry forests and woodlands of Sub-Saharan Africa are major ecosystems, with a broad range of strong economic and cultural incentives for keeping them intact. However, few people are aware of their importance, compared to tropical rainforests, despite them being home to more than half of the continent's population. This unique book brings together scientific knowledge on this topic from East, West, and Southern Africa and describes the relationships between forests, woodlands, people and their livelihoods. Dry forest is defined as vegetation dominated by woody plants, primarily trees, the canopy of which covers more than 10 per cent of the ground surface, occurring in climates with a dry season of three months or more. This broad definition - wider than those used by many authors - incorporates vegetation types commonly termed woodland, shrubland, thicket, savanna, wooded grassland, as well as dry forest in its strict sense. The book provides a comparative analysis of management experiences from the different geographic regions, emphasizing the need to balance the utilization of dry forests and woodland products between current and future human needs. Further, the book explores the techniques and strategies that can be deployed to improve the management of African dry forests and woodlands for the benefit of all, but more importantly, the communities that live off these vegetation formations. Thus, the book lays a foundation for improving the management of dry forests and woodlands for the wide range of products and services they provide.


Pdf ebook: Crystal Growth Technology

Pdf download ebook Crystal Growth Technology

Summary: In this book top experts treat general thermodynamic aspects of crystal fabrication; numerical simulation of industrial growth processes; commercial produc

  • Author : Hans J. Scheel,Peter Capper
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 3527623450
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 521
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1633
  • Downloads: 1633
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Description: In this book top experts treat general thermodynamic aspects of crystal fabrication; numerical simulation of industrial growth processes; commercial production of bulk silicon, compound semiconductors, scintillation and oxide crystals; X-ray characterization; and crystal machining. Also, the role of crystal technology for renewable energy and for saving energy is discussed. It will be useful for scientists and engineers involved in crystal and epilayer fabrication as well as for teachers and graduate students in material science, chemical and metallurgical engineering, and micro- and optoelectronics, including nanotechnology.


Pdf ebook: Computer Aided Molecular Design

Pdf download ebook Computer Aided Molecular Design

Summary: CAMD or Computer Aided Molecular Design refers to the design of molecules with desirable properties. That is, through CAMD, one determines molecules that m

  • Author : Luke Achenie,Venkat Venkatasubramanian,Rafiqul Gani
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 9780080529431
  • Genre: Computers
  • Number of Pages: 404
  • Language: English
  • Views: 879
  • Downloads: 879
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Description: CAMD or Computer Aided Molecular Design refers to the design of molecules with desirable properties. That is, through CAMD, one determines molecules that match a specified set of (target) properties. CAMD as a technique has a very large potential as in principle, all kinds of chemical, bio-chemical and material products can be designed through this technique. This book mainly deals with macroscopic properties and therefore does not cover molecular design of large, complex chemicals such as drugs. While books have been written on computer aided molecular design relating to drugs and large complex chemicals, a book on systematic formulation of CAMD problems and solutions, with emphasis on theory and practice, which helps one to learn, understand and apply the technique is currently unavailable. · This title brings together the theoretical aspects related to Computer Aided Molecular Design, the different techniques that have been developed and the different applications that have been reported. · Contributing authors are among the leading researchers and users of CAMD · First book available giving a systematic formulation of CAMD problems and solutions


Pdf ebook: Nature-Based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas

Pdf download ebook Nature-Based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas

Summary: This open access book brings together research findings and experiences from science, policy and practice to highlight and debate the importance of nature-

  • Author : Nadja Kabisch,Horst Korn,Jutta Stadler,Aletta Bonn
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319560913
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 342
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1664
  • Downloads: 1664
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Description: This open access book brings together research findings and experiences from science, policy and practice to highlight and debate the importance of nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation in urban areas. Emphasis is given to the potential of nature-based approaches to create multiple-benefits for society. The expert contributions present recommendations for creating synergies between ongoing policy processes, scientific programmes and practical implementation of climate change and nature conservation measures in global urban areas. Except where otherwise noted, this book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/


Pdf ebook: Visualizing Chemistry

Pdf download ebook Visualizing Chemistry

Summary: Scientists and engineers have long relied on the power of imaging techniques to help see objects invisible to the naked eye, and thus, to advance scientifi

  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on Revealing Chemistry through Advanced Chemical Imaging
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 9780309164634
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 222
  • Language: English
  • Views: 778
  • Downloads: 778
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Description: Scientists and engineers have long relied on the power of imaging techniques to help see objects invisible to the naked eye, and thus, to advance scientific knowledge. These experts are constantly pushing the limits of technology in pursuit of chemical imaging—the ability to visualize molecular structures and chemical composition in time and space as actual events unfold—from the smallest dimension of a biological system to the widest expanse of a distant galaxy. Chemical imaging has a variety of applications for almost every facet of our daily lives, ranging from medical diagnosis and treatment to the study and design of material properties in new products. In addition to highlighting advances in chemical imaging that could have the greatest impact on critical problems in science and technology, Visualizing Chemistry reviews the current state of chemical imaging technology, identifies promising future developments and their applications, and suggests a research and educational agenda to enable breakthrough improvements.


Pdf ebook: Organic Flexible Electronics

Pdf download ebook Organic Flexible Electronics

Summary: Organic Electronics is a novel field of electronics that has gained an incredible attention over the past few decades. New materials, device architectures

  • Author : Piero Cosseddu,Mario Caironi
  • Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
  • ISBN: 012818891X
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Number of Pages: 664
  • Language: English
  • Views: 394
  • Downloads: 394
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Description: Organic Electronics is a novel field of electronics that has gained an incredible attention over the past few decades. New materials, device architectures and applications have been continuously introduced by the academic and also industrial communities, and novel topics have raised strong interest in such communities, as molecular doping, thermoelectrics, bioelectronics and many others. Organic Flexible Electronics is mainly divided into three sections. The first part is focused on the fundamentals of organic electronics, such as charge transport models in these systems and new approaches for the design and synthesis of novel molecules. The first section addresses the main challenges that are still open in this field, including the important role of interfaces for achieving high-performing devices or the novel approaches employed for improving reliability issues. The second part discusses the most innovative devices which have been developed in recent years, such as devices for energy harvesting, flexible batteries, high frequency circuits, and flexible devices for tattoo electronics and bioelectronics. Finally the book reviews the most important applications moving from more standard flexible back panels to wearable and textile electronics and more futuristic applications like ingestible systems. Reviews the fundamental properties and methods for optimizing organic electronic materials including chemical doping and techniques to address stability issues; Discusses the most promising organic electronic devices for energy, electronics, and biomedical applications; Addresses key applications of organic electronic devices in imagers, wearable electronics, bioelectronics.


Pdf ebook: Handbook of Fiber Chemistry, Third Edition

Pdf download ebook Handbook of Fiber Chemistry, Third Edition

Summary: The Handbook of Fiber Chemistry, Third Edition provides complete coverage of scientific and technological principles for all major natural and synthetic fi

  • Author : Menachem Lewin
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 1420015273
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 1056
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1145
  • Downloads: 1145
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Description: The Handbook of Fiber Chemistry, Third Edition provides complete coverage of scientific and technological principles for all major natural and synthetic fibers. Incorporating new scientific techniques, instruments, characterization, and processing methods, the book features important technological advances from the past decade, particularly in fiber production and novel applications. It contains the latest data and insight into the chemistry and structural properties made possible by these advances. Authored by leading experts in the field of fiber science, most chapters in this third edition of a bestseller are either new or extensively updated. Chapters on synthetic fibers detail their formation from monomers, while those on natural fibers cover extraction and purification methods. Each chapter encompasses definitions, morphology, and fine structure; properties, testing, processing methods, and equipment; and the conversion into marketable products. Taking into account the recent expansion and diversification of markets for various fibers, this book also offers a solid foundation in the principles used for developing new fibers, including biologically and electronically active fibers. The Handbook of Fiber Chemistry, Third Edition offers a better understanding of the structure–property relationships of fibers and fiber-related phenomena. It is an ideal volume for scientists, technologists, and engineers working to develop novel and innovative products and technologies using natural and synthetic fibers.