Pdf ebook: Volunteer stream monitoring a methods manual.

Pdf download ebook Volunteer stream monitoring a methods manual.

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  • Author : N.a
  • Publisher: DIANE Publishing
  • ISBN: 142890610X
  • Genre: N.a
  • Number of Pages:
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1041
  • Downloads: 1041
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Pdf ebook: Dragonfly Nymphs of North America

Pdf download ebook Dragonfly Nymphs of North America

Summary: This monograph is the first of its kind devoted entirely to the dragonfly nymphs of North America north of Mexico, the focus being accurate identification

  • Author : Kenneth J. Tennessen
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319977768
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 620
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1896
  • Downloads: 1896
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Description: This monograph is the first of its kind devoted entirely to the dragonfly nymphs of North America north of Mexico, the focus being accurate identification of the 330 species of Anisoptera that occur in the region. Nymphal external morphology is described and illustrated in detail, and all terms needed to navigate the dichotomous keys are defined. Species are tabulated with references that provide the most detailed, accurate descriptions for each; species that are inadequately described are so indicated. The key separating the seven families in the region contains several new characters. The families are then covered separately: Aeshnidae (13 genera), Gomphidae (17 genera), Petaluridae (2 genera), Cordulegastridae (2 genera), Macromiidae (2 genera), Corduliidae (7 genera), and Libellulidae (29 genera). Each family is further characterized, followed by a generic key. A drawing of the habitus and diagnostic details for each genus are provided, along with additional diagnostic remarks and notes on habitat and life cycle; for each genus, a map shows its geographic distribution in North America. Full-grown nymphs of all known species of each genus are keyed and diagnosed; characters that apply to earlier instars are noted. Morphological variation in character states was analyzed in order to assess the reliability of previously utilized characters and to discover new characters. Most of the characters used to distinguish all levels of taxa are illustrated; a total of 702 figures, comprising 1,800 original drawings, along with selected photographs where necessary for clarity, accompany the keys. Measurements of total length, head width, and other variables for each species are provided in tables. Difficulties with past keys and descriptions, including errors, omissions and other shortcomings, are addressed. The importance of nymph characters in helping solve generic and specific distinctions and their role in phylogenetic studies is emphasized. Methods for collecting, rearing, and preserving dragonfly nymphs and exuviae are presented. The final chapter discusses research opportunities on North American Anisoptera nymphs, including taxonomic needs, studies on structure and function, life history and microhabitat, water quality indices and conservation efforts. The habitus drawings of all genera are arranged according to family in five plates (Appendix I); although the book is intended as a lab manual, these plates conveniently allow for comparison based on nymph shape making field identification to genus possible in many cases. Appendix II contains a brief history of dragonfly nymph studies in North America. A glossary and an index to scientific names are included.


Pdf ebook: Measuring Arthropod Biodiversity

Pdf download ebook Measuring Arthropod Biodiversity

Summary: This book brings together a wide range of sampling methods for investigating different arthropod groups. Each chapter is organised to describe and evaluate

  • Author : Jean Carlos Santos,Geraldo Wilson Fernandes
  • Publisher: Springer Nature
  • ISBN: 3030532267
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 600
  • Language: English
  • Views: 557
  • Downloads: 557
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Description: This book brings together a wide range of sampling methods for investigating different arthropod groups. Each chapter is organised to describe and evaluate the main sampling methods (field methods, materials and supplies, sampling protocols, effort needed, and limitations); in addition, some chapters describe the specimen preparation and conservation, species identification, data collection and management (treatment, statistical analysis, interpretation), and ecological/conservation implications of arthropod communities. The book aims to be a reference for zoologists, entomologists, arachnologists, ecologists, students, researchers, and for those interested in arthropod science and biodiversity. We hope the book will contribute to advance knowledge on field assessments and conservation strategies. Arthropods represent the most speciose group of organisms on Earth, with a remarkable number of species and interactions still to be described. These invertebrates are recognized for playing key ecological roles in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Because of the increasing and relentless threats arthropods are facing lately due to a multitude of human induced drivers, this book represents an important contribution to assess their biodiversity and role in ecosystem functioning and generation of ecosystem services worldwide.


Pdf ebook: Arthropod Collection and Identification

Pdf download ebook Arthropod Collection and Identification

Summary: Arthropods are the most numerous and diverse group of animals and studying them requires the use of specialized equipment and specific procedures. This tex

  • Author : Timothy J. Gibb,Christian Oseto
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0080919251
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 336
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1822
  • Downloads: 1822
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Description: Arthropods are the most numerous and diverse group of animals and studying them requires the use of specialized equipment and specific procedures. This text describes effective methods and equipment for collecting, identifying, rearing, examining, and preserving insects and mites, and explains how to store and care for specimens in collections. It also provides instructions for the construction of many kinds of collecting equipment, traps, rearing cages, and storage units, as well as updated and illustrated keys for identification of the classes of arthropods and the orders of insects. Such information not only aids hobbyists and professionals in preparing insect collections, but it has become essential in documenting and standardizing collections of entomological evidence in forensic as well as pest management sciences. * Over 400 professionally drawn illustrations * Identification keys to find arthropod orders * Comprehensive reading list * Detailed glossary of terms


Pdf ebook: The Chironomidae

Pdf download ebook The Chironomidae

Summary: The dipteran family Chironomidae is the most widely distributed and frequently the most abundant group of insects in freshwater, with rep resentatives in b

  • Author : P.D. Armitage,L.C. Pinder,P.S. Cranston
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401107157
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 572
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1048
  • Downloads: 1048
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Description: The dipteran family Chironomidae is the most widely distributed and frequently the most abundant group of insects in freshwater, with rep resentatives in both terrestrial and marine environments. A very wide range of gradients of temperature, pH, oxygen concentration, salinity, current velocity, depth, productivity, altitude and latitude have been exploited, by at least some chironomid species, and in grossly polluted environments chironomids may be the only insects present. The ability to exist in such a wide range of conditions has been achieved largely by behavioural and physiological adaptations with relatively slight morphological changes. It has been estimated that the number of species world-wide may be as high as 15000. This high species diversity has been attributed to the antiquity of the family, relatively low vagility leading to isolation, and evolutionary plasticity. In many aquatic ecosystems the number of chironomid species present may account for at least 50% of the total macroinvertebrate species recorded. This species richness, wide distribution and tolerance to adverse conditions has meant that the group is frequently recorded in ecological studies but taxonomic difficulties have in the past prevented non-specialist identification beyond family or subfamily level. Recent works, including genetic studies, have meant that the family is receiving much more attention globally.


Pdf ebook: Biodiversity in Enclosed Seas and Artificial Marine Habitats

Pdf download ebook Biodiversity in Enclosed Seas and Artificial Marine Habitats

Summary: The main themes of the Symposium were biodiversity in enclosed and semi-enclosed seas and artificial habitats, and the restoration of degraded systems. The

  • Author : G. Relini,J. Ryland
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1402061560
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 271
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1495
  • Downloads: 1495
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Description: The main themes of the Symposium were biodiversity in enclosed and semi-enclosed seas and artificial habitats, and the restoration of degraded systems. These themes are highly relevant today. The papers dealing with the first theme represent current research and concerns about marine biodiversity in enclosed seas. The papers in the second theme represent a synthesis of up-to-date knowledge on artificial habitats.


Pdf ebook: Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems

Pdf download ebook Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems

Summary: This text provides an important overview of the contributions of edible insects to ecological sustainability, livelihoods, nutrition and health, food cultu

  • Author : Afton Halloran,Roberto Flore,Paul Vantomme,Nanna Roos
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319740113
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Number of Pages: 479
  • Language: English
  • Views: 854
  • Downloads: 854
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Description: This text provides an important overview of the contributions of edible insects to ecological sustainability, livelihoods, nutrition and health, food culture and food systems around the world. While insect farming for both food and feed is rapidly increasing in popularity around the world, the role that wild insect species have played in the lives and societies of millions of people worldwide cannot be ignored. In order to represent this diversity, this work draws upon research conducted in a wide range of geographical locations and features a variety of different insect species. Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems comprehensively covers the basic principles of entomology and population dynamics; edible insects and culture; nutrition and health; gastronomy; insects as animal feed; factors influencing preferences and acceptability of insects; environmental impacts and conservation; considerations for insect farming and policy and legislation. The book contains practical information for researchers, NGOs and international organizations, decision-makers, entrepreneurs and students.


Pdf ebook: Community Ecology

Pdf download ebook Community Ecology

Summary: Community ecology: the study of the patterns and processes involving two or more species - has developed rapidly in the last two decades, driven by new and

  • Author : Peter J. Morin
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1444312316
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1573
  • Downloads: 1573
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Description: Community ecology: the study of the patterns and processes involving two or more species - has developed rapidly in the last two decades, driven by new and more sophisticated research techniques, advances in mathematical theory and modeling, and the increasing pressure on the environment wrought by humans. Once a purely descriptive science, it is now one of the most forward-looking areas of scientific inquiry. Morin skillfully guides the reader through the main tenets and central concepts of community ecology - competition, predation, food webs, indirect effects, habitat selection, diversity, and succession. In an attempt to introduce the reader to the most balanced coverage possible, Morin includes examples drawn from both the aquatic and terrestrial realm and from both plant and animal species. Balancing theory with experimentation and drawing on exciting new studies to complement the historical foundations of the discipline, he also stresses that both the empirical and theoretical approaches are necessary to drive ecology foward into the new millenium. The final chapter on applied community ecology ably demonstrates how community ecological processes have a wide environmental relevance. Although in its infancy, the application of community ecology to emerging problems in human-dominated ecosystems could mitigate problems as diverse as management strategies for important diseases transmitted by animals and the restoration and reconstruction of viable communities. Required reading for all students and practitioners interested in community phenomena, Community Ecology marks an important contribution to the development of this protean discipline. The first serious textbook for a decade on one of the keystone subdisciplines of ecology. Broad taxonomic and habitat coverage. Section on implications of community ecology for environmental issues.


Pdf ebook: A Functional Biology of Parasitism

Pdf download ebook A Functional Biology of Parasitism

Summary: Series Editor: Peter Calow, Department of Zoology, University of Sheffield, England The main aim of this series will be to illustrate and to explain the wa

  • Author : G.W. Esch,J.C. Fernandez
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401123527
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 337
  • Language: English
  • Views: 346
  • Downloads: 346
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Description: Series Editor: Peter Calow, Department of Zoology, University of Sheffield, England The main aim of this series will be to illustrate and to explain the way organisms 'make a living' in nature. At the heart of this - their functional biology - is the way organisms acquire and then make use of resources in metabolism, movement, growth, reproduction, and so on. These processes will form the fundamental framework of all the books in the series. Each book will concentrate on a particular taxon (species, family, class or even phylum) and will bring together information on the form, physiology, ecology and evolutionary biology of the group. The aim will be not only to describe how organisms work, but also to consider why they have come to work in that way. By concentration on taxa which are well known, it is hoped that the series will not only illustrate the success of selection, but also show the constraints imposed upon it by the physiological, morphological and developmental limitations of the groups. Another important feature of the series will be its organismic orientation. Each book will emphasize the importance of functional integration in the day to-day lives and the evolution of organisms. This is crucial since, though it may be true that organisms can be considered as collections of gene determined traits, they nevertheless interact with their environment as integrated wholes and it is in this context that individual traits have been subjected to natural selection and have evolved.


Pdf ebook: Limnology and Aquatic Birds

Pdf download ebook Limnology and Aquatic Birds

Summary: Long-term population monitoring is an important tool in our investigations of the role waterbirds play in their environment. This book is international in

  • Author : Alan R. Hanson,Joseph J. Kerekes
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1402055560
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 349
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1531
  • Downloads: 1531
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Description: Long-term population monitoring is an important tool in our investigations of the role waterbirds play in their environment. This book is international in scope and presents information on species as diverse as the Common Loon, Harlequin Duck, and Semi-Palmated Sandpiper, and habitat in locations ranging from Iceland to Japan. Papers presented in this volume further our understanding of the important role that limnology plays in determining habitat suitability for waterbirds.


Pdf ebook: Bacterial Control of Mosquitoes & Black Flies

Pdf download ebook Bacterial Control of Mosquitoes & Black Flies

Summary: Mosquitoes and black flies are a constant threat to health and comfort, yet the modern chemical pesticides used to control them have cre ated serious ecolo

  • Author : Huguette de Barjac,Donald J. Sutherland
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 940115967X
  • Genre: Science
  • Number of Pages: 349
  • Language: English
  • Views: 945
  • Downloads: 945
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Description: Mosquitoes and black flies are a constant threat to health and comfort, yet the modern chemical pesticides used to control them have cre ated serious ecological problems. Populations of resistant mosquitoes and black flies have evolved, beneficial insects and natural predators have been destroyed, and environmental pollution has increased worldwide. Therefore, scientists have energetically sought new, environmentally safe technologies to combat mosquitoes and black flies and the diseases they carry. Among the most effective alternative means of controlling these pests are the highly spe cific microbial agents derived from Bacillus tburingiensis or Bacillus spbaericus. The microbial control of mosquitoes and black flies is a very important, rapidly developing area of science. Entomologists and microbiologists have already achieved spectacular successes using B. tburingiensis and B. spbaericus against these pests. Recent discoveries of new bacterial isolates specific to new hosts and recent genetic improvements in these isolates have created the potential for wide-scale use of these biological control agents. Efficient microbial control of mosquitoes and black flies can now be achieved, but a proper knowledge of factors relating to the safe and effective use of these biological control agents is necessary. The efficacy of B. tburingiensis and B. spbaericus is influenced by the inherent differential tol erance of the target mosquitoes or black flies, by the formulation technology and application of these agents, and by environmental factors, especially sun light and temperature.